Monthly Archives: April 2008

The Secret Origins Of Skull & Bones

George H. Bush (left of clock) with the Skull and Crossbones group at Yale University, New Haven, CT circa 1947


The story begins at Yale, where three threads of American social history — espionage, drug smuggling and secret societies — intertwine into one. Elihu Yale was born near Boston, educated in London, and served with the British East India Company, eventually becoming governor of Fort Saint George, Madras, in 1687.

He amassed a great fortune from trade and returned to England in 1699. Yale became known as quite a philanthropist; upon receiving a request from the Collegiate School in Connecticut, he sent a donation and a gift of books. After subsequent bequests, Cotton Mather suggested the school be named Yale College, in 1718. A statue of Nathan Hale stands on Old Campus at Yale University.

There is a copy of that statue in front of the CIA’s headquarters in Langley, Virginia. Yet another stands in front of Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts (where George H.W. Bush (’48) went to prep school and joined a secret society at age twelve). Nathan Hale, along with three other Yale graduates, was a member of the “Culper Ring,” one of America’s first intelligence operations. Established by George Washington, it was successful throughout the Revolutionary War.

Nathan was the only operative to be ferreted out by the British, and after speaking his famous regrets, he was hanged in 1776. Ever since the founding of the Republic, the relationship between Yale and the “Intelligence Community” has been unique. In 1823, Samuel Russell established Russell and Company for the purpose of acquiring opium in Turkey and smuggling it to China. Russell and Company merged with the Perkins (Boston) syndicate in 1830 and became the primary American opium smuggler.

Many of the great American and European fortunes were built on the “China”(opium) trade. One of Russell and Company’s Chief of Operations in Canton was Warren Delano, Jr., grandfather of Franklin Roosevelt. Other Russell partners included John Cleve Green (who financed Princeton), Abiel Low (who financed construction of Columbia), Joseph Coolidge and the Perkins, Sturgis and Forbes families. (Coolidge’s son organized the United Fruit company, and his grandson, Archibald C. Coolidge, was a co-founder of the Council on Foreign Relations.) William Huntington Russell (’33), Samuel’s cousin, studied in Germany from 1831-32.

Germany was a hotbed of new ideas. The “scientific method” was being applied to all forms of human endeavor. Prussia, which blamed the defeat of its forces by Napoleon in 1806 on soldiers only thinking about themselves in the stress of battle, took the principles set forth by John Locke and Jean Rosseau and created a new educational system. Johan Fitche, in his “Address to the German People,” declared that the children would be taken over by the State and told what to think and how to think it.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel took over Fitche’s chair at the University Of Berlin in 1817, and was a professor there until his death in 1831. Hegel was the culmination of the German idealistic philosophy school of Immanuel Kant. To Hegel, our world is a world of reason. The state is Absolute Reason and the citizen can only become free by worship and obedience to the state. Hegel called the state the “march of God in the world” and the “final end”. This final end, Hegel said, “has supreme right against the individual, whose supreme duty is to be a member of the state.”

Both fascism and communism have their philosophical roots in Hegellianism. Hegellian philosophy was very much in vogue during William Russell’s time in Germany. When Russell returned to Yale in 1832, he formed a senior society with Alphonso Taft (’33). According to information acquired from a break-in to the “tomb” (the Skull and Bones meeting hall) in 1876, “Bones is a chapter of a corps in a German University…. General Russell, its founder, was in Germany before his Senior Year and formed a warm friendship with a leading member of a German society.

He brought back with him to college, authority to found a chapter here.” So class valedictorian William H. Russell, along with fourteen others, became the founding members of “The Order of Scull and Bones,” later changed to “The Order of Skull and Bones”. The secretive Order of Skull and Bones exists only at Yale. Fifteen juniors are “tapped” each year by the seniors to be initiated into next year’s group. Some say each initiate is given $15,000 and a grandfather clock.

Far from being a campus fun-house, the group is geared more toward the success of its members in the post-collegiate world. The family names on the Skull and Bones roster roll off the tongue like an elite party list — Lord, Whitney, Taft, Jay, Bundy, Harriman, Weyerhaeuser, Pinchot, Rockefeller, Goodyear, Sloane, Stimson, Phelps, Perkins, Pillsbury, Kellogg, Vanderbilt, Bush, Lovett and so on.

William Russell went on to become a general and a state legislator in Connecticut. Alphonso Taft was appointed U.S. Attorney General, Secretary of War (a post many “Bonesmen” have held), Ambassador to Austria, and Ambassador to Russia (another post held by many “Bonesmen”). His son, William Howard Taft (’87), is the only man to be both President of the United States and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.


Surname Forenames Year

Abbe Frederick Randolph 1848
Abbott John S.C.
Aberg, Jr. Donlan Vincent 1952
Abrams Peter Mark 1983
Acheson David Campion 1943
Acheson Dean (Disputed, Scroll & Key?)
Ackerman Stephen H. 1957
Acosta John Sidney 1921
Adams Charles Edward 1904
Adams Charles Hemmenway 1866
Adams Frederick Baldwin 1862
Adams Frederick Baldwin 1900
Adams, Jr. Frederick Baldwin 1932
Adams George Webster 1904
Adams Lewis G. 1920
Adams Mason Tyler 1899
Adams Stephen 1959
Afeiju Bernard I. 1967
Ahlbrandt, Jr. Roger S. 1963
Aiken Edwin Edgerton 1881
Aitchison William 1848
Albritton Paul Berem 1978
Aldis Owen Franklin 1874
Aldrich Malcolm Pratt 1922
Alexander Eben 1873
Alexander William DeWitt 1855
Alexander William Felix 1851
Ali Mehdi Raza 1965
Allen Arthur Dwight 1901
Allen Arthur Huntington 1873
Allen Calvin Durand 1913
Allen Charles E. 1958
Allen Daniel 1926
Allen Frederick Winthrop 1900
Allen Henry Elisha 1924
Allen John DeWitt Hamilton 1876
Allen Parker Breese 1919
Allen Walter 1863
Allen William Palmer 1880
Allen, Jr. Archibald J. 1945
Allen, Jr. Clarence Emir 1913
Alling, Jr. Charles Booth 1947
Allison Samuel Perkins 1847
Allison, Jr. Robert Seaman 1930
Ames Allan Wallace 1918
Ames Sullivan Dobb 1899
Amundson John Arnold 1880
Anderson Edwin Alexander 1835
Anderson Thomas Hill 1951
Andrews John Wolcott 1876
Andrews, Jr. Edward W. 1945
Andrews, Jr. John Wallingford 1870
Andrie Paul James 1984
Anthony Benjamin Harris 1886
Appel George Frederick Baer 1924
Ardrey Rushton L. 1925
Arms Charles Jesup 1863
Arnot John Hulett 1885
Arnot Matthias Hollenback 1856
Arras, Jr. Robert E. 1969
Asburn Frank Davis 1925
Asch Victor Henderson 1967
Ashenfelter Alan Thompson 1975
Ashforth Albert Blackhurst 1929
Ashley Thomas William Ludlow 1948
Austen David E. 1931
Austin Roy Leslie 1968
Austin Samuel Monroe 1980
Avery Benjamin F. 1914
Avery Charles Hammond 1875
Aycrigg II William Anderson 1942
Ayeroff Frederick Charles 1974
Babcock Henry Harper 1853
Babst James Anthony 1971
Back Samuel H. 1962
Backus Joseph Willes 1846
Bacon Leonard
Badger Paul Bradford 1911
Badger Walter Irving 1882
Bailey Philip Horton 1897
Baker Richard Wheeler 1913
Baldridge Howard Malcolm 1918
Baldwin George William 1853
Baldwin Henry DeForest 1885
Baldwin Roger Sherman 1847
Baldwin Sherman 1919
Baldwin Simeon Eren 1861
Ball David George 1960
Banks Howard D. 1956
Bannard Henry Clay 1869
Bannard Otto Tremont 1876
Baran Mark R. 1978
Barasch Alan Sidney 1973
Baratte Julius Adolphus 1843
Barge Richard Mason 1974
Baribault Richard P. 1949
Barker George Payson 1856
Barlett John Knowlton 1838
Barlett Philip Golden 1881
Barnes Pearce 1874
Barnes William Deluce 1907
Barnes William Henry Lienow 1855
Barney Danford Newton 1881
Barnum William Milo 1877
Barr, Jr. Richard J. 1936
Barres Herster B.D. 1932
Barry William Taylor Sullivan 1841
Bartholemy Alan Edmund 1942
Bartholomew Dana Treat 1928
Bass James Edward 1982
Basset II Barton Bradley 1949
Bassi Keith Alan 1978
Bates Emmert Warren 1932
Bates Samuel Henshaw 1833
Bayard Thomas Francis 1890
Bayne Hugh Aiken 1892
Bayne Thomas Levingston 1847
Bayne-Jones Stanhope 1910
Beach John Campell 1833
Beach John Sheldon 1839
Beane, Jr. Frank Eastman 1960
Beard Anson McCook 1895
Beard William Mossgrove 1896
Beaumont George Anson Oliver 1834
Becket G. Campbell 1923
Becket Peter Logan 1963
Beckley John Werle 1860
Beebe William 1873
Beers Henry Augustin 1869
Begg William Reynolds 1893
Beirne Christopher James 1840
Belin Gaspard d’Andelot 1939
Bell Richard Dobbs Spaight 1844
Bell William Tompkins 1942
Bellinger Alfred Rammond 1917
Bellis Jon Michael 1974
Bellis Tedric Lawrence 1973
Beman Henry DeWitt 1851
Bench Edward C. 1925
Bender Kenneth Arthur 1975
Benedict Theodore Hudson 1840
Bennetto John 1887
Benninghoff Harry Bryner 1954
Benoit, Jr. Charles Edward 1965
Bent Joseph Appleton 1865
Bentley Edward Manross 1880
Bentley Edward Warren 1850
Benton Joseph Augustine 1842
Berger, Jr. George Bart 1928
Berlin Gasper
Berry Coburn Dewees 1868
Bertron Samuel Reading 1885
Best Geoffry D.C. 1964
Biddle Thomas Bradish 1839
Bigelow Albert 1852
Bigelow Walter Irving 1877
Biglow Lucius Horatio 1908
Biglow, Jr. Lucius Horatio 1948
Bingham Charles Tiffany 1928
Bingham Egert Byron 1863
Bingham Jonathan Brewster 1936
Birgen Robert Richards 1968
Bisaro Larry R. 1974
Bishop Noah 1833
Bissel Arthur Douglas 1867
Bissel Wilson Shannon 1869
Bissell George Thomas 1961
Bissell William Truesdale 1925
Bissell, Jr. Richard M.
Blackman Charles Seymour 1857
Blackman Samuel Curtis 1854
Blaine Walker 1876
Blair Edwin Foster 1924
Blair James Grant 1925
Blair William McCormick 1907
Blake Dexter B. 1937
Blake Edward Foster 1858
Blake Eli Whitney 1857
Blake Henry T. 1848
Blake Henry Taylor 1848
Blake, Jr. Gilman Dorr 1945
Blakely Marvin 1977
Blakeslee Henry Clay 1852
Blanchard Jerred Gurley 1939
Blattner Robert William 1976
Bliss Charles Miller 1852
Bliss Robert 1850
Bliss William Root 1850
Blodgett George Reddington 1884
Blue Linden S. 1958
Boasberg III James Emanuel 1956
Bockrath, Jr. Richard C. 1961
Bockstoce John R. 1966
Bodman William Camp 1959
Boies Charles Alred 1860
Boltwood Edward 1860
Boltwood Edward 1892
Boltwood Thomas Kast 1864
Booth Samuel Albert 1884
Booth Wilbur Franklin 1884
Borden Matthew Chaloner Durfee 1864
Borne David Lyle 1963
Bottum Elisha Slocum 1876
Boulos (Bouliaratis) William M. 1947
Bouscaren Michael Frederic 1969
Bowers Lloyd Wheaton 1879
Bowle, Jr. William Carter 1961
Bowles Henry Thornton 1899
Bowles John Eliot 1935
Bowman Ralph David 1957
Boyd Francis T. 1912
Boyden Henry Paine 1864
Bradford Amory Howe 1934
Bradford Arthur Howe 1905
Bradford Timothy McFall 1967
Bradley Charles Harvey 1921
Brand James 1866
Brandegee Augustus 1849
Brandegee Frank Bosworth 1885
Brandt John Henry 1962
Breed Edward Andrews 1844
Breen J. Gerald 1950
Bremmer Samuel Kimball 1886
Breslau Jonathan 1982
Brewster Benjamin 1882
Brewster Chauncey Bunce 1868
Brewster Walter Rice 1921
Brewster IV James Henry 1962
Brickell James Noaille 1845
Bridgman John Cloyse 1885
Brinsmade Horatio Walsh 1851
Brinton Daniel Garrison 1858
Brisrin John Ball 1846
Bristol Louis Henry 1859
Brodhead Henry 1859
Bronson David Bennet 1947
Bronson James Davis 1926
Brooke Frederick Hiester 1899
Brooke George Clymer 1897
Brooke, Jr. Frederick H. 1937
Brooks Henry Stanford 1885
Brooks James Wilton 1875
Brooks John Edward 1865
Brooks Peter Moody 1983
Brooks Tristam Anthony 1982
Brooks Walter 1877
Brown Alexander 1896
Brown Alexander Lardner 1869
Brown Christopher Walworth 1968
Brown George Clifford 1966
Brown Henry Armitt 1865
Brown Hubert Sanford 1861
Brown Jamot 1899
Brown John Mason 1856
Brown Joseph Venen 1842
Brown Robert Nelson 1979
Brown Samuel Taylor Glover 1944
Brown Walter Henderson 1945
Brown William Scott 1970
Brubaker James Robert 1977
Brubaker John Kim 1976
Bruce Donald 1906
Bryan James Taylor 1971
Bryan, Jr. L. Thomas 1955
Buchanan Thomas Walter 1889
Buck III Charles Henry 1969
Buckland Joseph Payson 1857
Buckley Christopher Taylor 1975
Buckley Fercus Reid 1952
Buckley James Lane 1944
Buckley, Jr. William Frank 1950
Buckner Mortimer Norton 1895
Bulkey Jonathan Ogden 1923
Bulkey Tuzar 1865
Bull Cornelius Wade 1863
Bullock Stanton B. 1981
Bumstead Nathaniel Willis 1855
Bundy Frederick McGeorge 1921
Bundy Harvey Hollister 1909
Bundy Hollister 1909
Bundy McGeorge 1940
Bundy William Putman 1939
Bunnell Phil W. 1927
Burch Robert Boyd 1909
Burke III James Eugene 1975
Burke, Jr. Charles Clinton 1937
Burkus Gregory James 1982
Burnham Curtis Field 1840
Burpee Charles Winslow 1883
Burpee Lucien Francis 1879
Burr William Shedden 1834
Burr II Charles B. 1962
Burrell Joseph Dunn 1881
Buritt Edwin Authur 1915
Buritt John
Bush Derek C. 1967
Bush George Herbert Walker 1948
Bush George Walker 1968
Bush James S. 1922
Bush Jonathan J. 1953
Bush Prescott Sheldon 1917
Bushnell Samuel Clarke 1874
Bushnell William Benedick 1865
Butler Francis Eugene 1857
Butler John Haskell 1863
Butterworth Frank Seiler 1895
Buttles Albert Barnes 1842
Cable Benjamin Stickney 1895
Caldwell Samuel Smith 1933
Calhoun Governeur 1891
Callahan Hugh Andrew 1899
Came Charles Green 1849
Camp Arthur Goodwin 1907
Camp Clinton 1850
Camp Stuart Brown 1900
Camp Walter 1880
Campbell Alan Barnette 1919
Campbell Charles Soutter 1909
Campbell Gavin Elliott 1982
Campbell James 1849
Campbell James Alexander 1882
Campbell Kimberly C. 1981
Campbell Treat 1878
Campbell William Harvey Wilson 1856
Cangelosi Russell Joseph 1972
Capozzalo Douglas Daniel 1976
Capron Paul 1960
Capron Samuel Mills 1853
Carey John 1945
Carlin, Jr. William John Carr
Carlisle James Mandeville 1901
Carlsen Ray Allen 1957
Carlsson Mats Erik 1981
Carpenter George Boone 1902
Carpenter Robert John 1859
Carter Charles Francis 1878
Carter Edwin Osgood 1837
Carter Frederic Dewhurst 1919
Carter Lyon 1915
Carter Walter Frederick 1895
Case George Bowen 1894
Case, Jr. Philip Benham 1970
Caskey Taliaferro Franklin 1865
Casscells Christopher Dyson 1976
Cassel John A. 1958
Caukins, Jr. George Peck 1943
Caulkins John Erwin 1948
Cerveris Michael Ernest 1983
Chadwick George Brewster 1903
Chafee John Hubbard 1947
Chamberlain Daniel Henry 1862
Chamberlain Leander Trowbridge 1863
Chamberlain Robert Linton 1861
Chambers William Lyon 1843
Chandler William Henry 1839
Chandrasekhar Ashok Jai
Chapin Charles Frederick 1877
Chapin Lebeus C.
Charney Charles Meigs 1865
Chase Henry 1850
Chauvenet William 1840
Cheney Clifford Dudley 1898
Cheney Frank Dexter 1900
Cheney Howell 1892
Cheney Philip 1901
Cheney Ronald Lawton 1958
Cheney Russell 1904
Cheney Thomas Langdon 1901
Cheney Ward 1896
Cheney, Jr. Knight Dexter 1892
Chester Carl Thurston 1875
Chibundu Maxwell O. 1980
Child Calvin G.
Child Linus Mason 1855
Childs Starling Winston 1976
Chimenti Norman Victor 1962
Chin Mnu
Chittenden George Hastings 1939
Choa Christopher James 1981
Chouteau Rene Auguste 1942
Christian Henry Hall 1901
Cirie John A. 1964
Clark Albert Barnes 1864
Clark Alexander Ray 1895
Clark Avery Artison 1909
Clark Charles Hopkins 1871
Clark Douglas Wells 1972
Clark Gerald Holland 1965
Clark Harold Terry 1903
Clark J. Bruce 1978
Clark Stephen Edward 1965
Clark Thomas W. 1961
Clark William Judkins 1948
Clark, Jr. R. Inslee 1957
Clarke Thomas Slidell 1875
Clarke William Barker 1849
Claude, Jr. Abram 1952
Clay Alexander Stephens 1964
Clay Cassius Marcellus 1918
Clay Green 1859
Clay Jesse Loring 1963
Clay Lowell Melcher 1939
Clay Timothy J. 1965
Clucas Lowell Melcher 1939
Cobb Henry Nitche 1855
Cochran Thomas 1904
Cochran Thomas 1894
Coe Edward Benton 1862
Coe Robert Elmer 1872
Coffin Edmund 1866
Coffin Henry Sloan 1897
Coffin James 1868
Coffin William Sloane 1949
Coffin, Jr. William Sloan 1949
Coffing Churchill 1834
Coggins Daniel Seton 1964
Cogswell John M. 1961
Cohen Kenneth Saul 1968
Cohen Robert Lewis 1974
Coit Joshua 1853
Coit William 1837
Coke, Jr. Henry C. 1926
Cole Hamilton 1866
Coleman John Caldwell 1881
Colgate Henry Auchincloss 1913
Collier Samuel (Sam) Carnes 1935
Collin Frederick 1871
Collin William Welch 1877
Colt LeBaron Bradford 1868
Colton Henry Martin 1848
Colton Willis Strong 1850
Condit Albert Pierson 1850
Condit Charles 1848
Condit Stephen 1856
Connelly, Jr. William James 1948
Connick Andrew Jackson 1952
Connick Louis 1945
Connor Lemuel Parker 1845
Connor William Gustine 1845
Connors David Michael 1974
Connors James Joseph 1959
Converse George Sherman 1850
Conway, Jr. Joseph Leo 1981
Cook Robert Johnston 1876
Cook II George 1945
Cook III George 1948
Cooke Eldridge Clinton 1877
Cooke Francis Judd 1933
Cooke James Barclay 1893
Cooke John Parick 1959
Cooke Robert Barbour 1936
Cooke Walter Evans 1895
Cooley Harlan Ward 1888
Coombs Orde Musgrave 1965
Coon John 1847
Cooper Carnell 1977
Cooper Henry Sage Fenimore 1917
Cooper Jacob 1852
Cooper John Sherman 1923
Cooper William Frierson 1838
Corbin William Herbert 1889
Corey Alan Lyle 1911
Corey III Alan Lyle 1965
Cornell Thomas Hilary 1915
Corning Erastus 1903
Cornish, Jr. Percy Gillette 1914
Cortelyou, Jr. George Bruce 1913
Corwin Robert Nelson 1887
Corwith John White 1890
Cosgrove Thomas Francis 1969
Costikyan Grange K. 1929
Cowdry Rex William 1968
Cowles Alfred 1913
Cowles Alfred 1886
Cowles William Hutchinson 1887
Cowles William Sheffield 1921
Cowles III Alfred 1913
Cox John Joughin 1891
Coxe Alexander Brown 1887
Coy Edward Harris 1910
Coy Sherman Lockwood 1901
Crampton Rufus Cowles 1851
Crane, Jr. Winthrop Murray 1904
Crapo Stanford Tappan 1886
Crapo William Wallace 1852
Crawley Brian Scott 1964
Creoxton John T.
Cressler Alfred Miller 1902
Crile, Jr. George 1929
Crosby Albert Hastings 1922
Crosby Henry Stetson 1926
Crosby John 1890
Crosby, Jr. Benjamin Lewis 1892
Cross Alan W. 1966
Cross John Walter 1900
Cross Richard James 1937
Cross Walter Snell 1904
Cross, Jr. William R. 1941
Cross William Redmond 1896
Croxton John Thomas 1857
Cruikshank, Jr. Paul Fessenden 1952
Crump John 1833
Csar Michael F. 1972
Cunningham Hugh Terry 1934
Cunningham Oliver Baty 1917
Curtin Francis Clare 1935
Curtis George Louis 1878
Cushing Charles Cyprian Strong 1902
Cushing William Lee 1872
Cushman Charles W. 1957
Cushman Isaac LaFayette 1845
Cushman, Jr. Lt. Gen. Robert E. 1958
Cutler Benjamin Crawford 1926
Cutler Carroll 1854
D’Avanzo Louis A. 1956
Daggett Oliver Ellsworth
Dahl George 1908
Dalby Michael Thomas 1966
Dale, Jr. Edwin Lyon 1945
Daly Frederick Joseph 1911
Dana William Buck 1851
Dana James Dwight
Daniels Forest Leonard 1907
Daniels John H. 1943
Daniels Joseph Leonard 1860
Daniels Rensselaer Wilkinson 1873
Daniels John Thomas Leonard 1914
Danielson Richard Ely 1907
Darling Arthur Burr 1916
Darling Thomas 1836
Davenport Bradfute Warwick 1938
Davenport George Leovy 1980
Davenport John A. 1926
Davenport Russell Wheeler 1923
Davenport Stephen Rintoul 1915
Davies Philip Turner 1976
Davies Thomas Frederick 1853
Davies Thomas Frederick 1894
Davis Benjamin 1895
Davis Benjamin Franklin 1833
Davis Clinton Wildes 1911
Davis John 1835
Davis Lowndes Henry 1860
Davis Richard Marden 1933
Davis Robert Stewart 1860
Davis Walter Goodwin 1908
Davis II Horace Webber 1936
Davison Daniel Pomeroy 1949
Davison Endicott Peabody 1945
Davison Frederick Trubee 1918
Davison Henry Pomeroy 1920
Dawes Chester Mitchell 1876
Day Arthur Pomeroy 1890
Day Clive 1892
Day Dwight Huntington 1899
Day Huntington T. 1923
Day John Calvin 1857
Day Melville Cox 1862
Day Robert Webster 1875
Day Sherwood Sunderland 1911
Day Thomas Mills 1837
Day Thomas Mills 1886
Day William Edwards 1902
Day Henry N
Deans Robert Barr 1918
Dechert Henry Martyn 1850
Decker, Jr. Edmund Lockwood 1929
DeForest Stephen Elliott 1955
Demaree II Frank Edward 1969
Deming Charles Clerc 1872
Deming Henry Champion 1872
Deming Henry Champion 1836
Deming Lawrence Clerc 1883
Dempsey Andrew Squire 1956
Dempsey John Bourne 1911
Dempsey, Jr. James Howard 1938
Denegre Thomas Bayne 1915
DeNeufville John Phillip 1961
Denison Lindsay 1895
Dennis Frederic Shepard 1872
Denny Thomas 1854
Denslow Herbert McKenzie 1873
Dent Henry Hatch 1836
Depew Canson Goodyear 1919
Depew Chauncey Mitchell 1856
DeSa Pompeo Ascenco 1841
DeSibour Jules Henri 1896
DeSilver Albert 1910
Desjardins Peter Earl 1965
Devlin Michael William 1982
Devor, Jr Donald S. 1941
DeVore Mark Samuel 1980
Dexter Franklin Bowditch 1861
Dexter Morton 1867
Diamond Peter C. 1974
Dickinson Arthur 1856
Diller John Cabot 1924
Dilworth George Toby 1980
Dilworth Joseph Richardson 1938
Dimock Henry Farnam 1863
Dines Tyson 1908
Dixon Theodore Polehemus 1907
Dixon William Palmer 1868
Doane John Wesley 1891
Dodd Albert 1838
Dodge Francis Talmage 1904
Dodge Philip Lyndon 1907
Dodge Washington 1929
Dominick David DeWitt 1960
Dominick Gayer Gardner 1909
Donaldson William Henry 1953
Donnelley Gaylord 1931
Donnelley Reuben H. 1889
Donnelley Richard Robert 1889
Donnelley Thomas Elliott 1889
Doolittle Duncan Hunter 1943
Douglas Malcolm 1900
Douglass Willard Robinson 1887
Dousman Louis deVierville 1906
Dowling Brian J. 1969
Downing III Earl S. 1970
Doyle, Jr. Thomas James 1974
Drain Richard Dale 1943
Draper Arthur Joy 1937
Draper III William H. 1950
Dreisbach John Martin 1903
DuBois John Jay 1867
Dunham George Elliott 1859
Dunham, Jr. Lawrence Boardman 1938
Dunn George J. 1957
Dunning Rev. Albert Elijah 1867
Dunwody James Bulloch 1836
Durfee, Jr. C. Gibson 1956
Durham II Edwin A. 1953
Duryee Samuel Sloan 1917
Dutton Samuel W.S.
Dwight Timothy 1849
Dwight Winthrop Edwards 1893
Dyess Arthur Delma 1939
Eakin Emmet Alexander 1856
Eakin William Spencer 1846
Eames Benjamin Tucker 1843
Eaton Daniel C.
Early Hobart Evans 1945
Eaton Samuel Lewis 1877
Eaton Sherburne Blake 1862
Ecklund John E. 1938
Eddy Maxon Hunter 1929
Eden John W. 1951
Edozien Anthony O. 1979
Edwards Alfred Lewis 1857
Edwards George Benjamin 1878
Edwards Newton 1842
Edwards Richard Henry 1901
Eels John Shepard 1901
Eichelberger Martin Smyser 1858
Eisenberg Bruce Alan 1974
Eisler Colin Tobias 1952
Ekfelt Richard (Dick) Henry 1971
Elder Samuel James 1873
Eldridge Charles St. John 1839
Elebash Shehand Daniel 1944
Elliot Henry Rutherford 1871
Elliot William Horace 1844
Ellis Garrison McClintock Noel 1951
Ellis Harland Montgomery 1930
Ellis Raymond Walleser 1930
Ellis, Jr. Alexander 1944
Ellis, Jr. F. Henry 1941
Ellis, Jr. G. Corson 1951
Ellsworth John Stoughton 1905
Elwell, Jr. Francis Bolton 1945
Ely Grosvenor 1906
Ely Richard T.
Embersits John Frank 1958
Emerson Alfred 1834
Emerson Christy Payne 1953
Emerson Joseph 1841
Emerson Samuel 1848
English, Jr. William Deshay 1975
Eno John Chester 1869
Eno Wiliam Phelps 1882
Ercklentz Alexander Tonio 1959
Erickson Thomas Franklin 1940
Ernst Frederick Vincent 1960
Erskine, Jr. Albert DeW. 1930
Esselstyn Erik Canfield 1959
Esselstyn, Jr. Caldwell Blakesman 1956
Estill Joe Garner 1891
Esty Constantine Canaris 1845
Etra Donald 1968
Eustis William Tappan 1841
Evans Evan Wilhelm 1851
Evans Peter Seelye 1972
Evans T. Boyd 1954
Evarts Maxwell 1884
Evarts Sherman 1881
Evarts William Maxwell 1837
Ewell John Lewis 1865
Ewing Sherman 1924
Eyre Lawrence L. 1970
Farnam Charles Henry 1868
Farnam Henry Walcott 1874
Farnam John Dorrance 1890
Farnam William Whitman 1866
Farrar John Chipman 1917
Farris Robert P.
Faulkner Endress 1839
Fearey Morton Lazell 1898
Fehr Gerald F. 1955
Feinerman James Vincent 1971
Felder John Henry 1844
Fenn William Henry 1854
Ferguson Alfred Ludlow 1902
Ferguson James Lord 1944
Ferguson, Jr. Alfred L. 1926
Ferry Orris Sanford 1844
Fetner Philip Jay 1965
Few Smith William 1844
Field David Irvine 1841
Field John Warner 1937
Finch Francis Miles 1849
Fincke Clarence Mann 1897
Finley John George Gilpin 1947
Finney C. Roger 1973
Finney Graham Stanley 1952
Finney John Warren 1945
Fischer Louis Christopher 1856
Fish Stuyvesant 1905
Fisher Irving 1888
Fisher Samuel Herbert 1889
Fisher Scott B. 1972
Fisher George Park
Fishwick Dwight Brown 1928
Fisk Samuel Augustus 1844
Fisk Stuart Wilkins 1840
Fitch George Hopper 1932
Fitch James 1847
Flagg Wilbur Wells 1873
Flanders Henry Richmond 1885
Fleming Andrew T. 1980
Fleming William Stuart 1838
Fletcher Alexander Charles 1933
Flynn Alexander Rex 1906
Folsom Charles Seward 1883
Foote Charles Seward 1883
Foote Harry Ward 1866
Foote Joseph Forward 1850
Foote Thaddeus 1844
Ford George Tod 1865
Ford William 1942
Fore John Arthur 1979
Fort Donald Kenneth 1976
Fortgang Jeffrey 1971
Fortunato S. Joseph 1954
Foster David John 1967
Foster Dwight 1848
Foster Eleazar Kingsbury 1834
Foster George Forris 1879
Foster John Pierrepont 1869
Foster Joseph Taylor 1908
Foster Maxwell E. 1923
Foster Reginald 1884
Foster Roger 1878
Fowler Charles Newell 1876
Fowler Horace Webster 1863
Fowler William 1860
Fox Joseph Carrere 1938
Franchot Charles Pascal 1910
Francis Samuel Hopkins 1964
Frank Clinton E. 1938
Frank III Charles Augustus 1963
Frank, Jr. Victor H. 1950
Frankelm Scott David
Franklin Richard David 1983
Fredericks Joel Richard 1977
Freeman Henry Varnum 1869
French Asa Palmer 1882
French Robert Dudley 1910
Friedland Johnathan David 1970
Fritzche Peter B. 1957
Frost Elihu Brintnal 1883
Frost, Jr. Albert Carl 1922
Fuller Henry W. 1969
Fuller Philo Carroll 1881
Fuller Stanley Evert 1935
Fuller William Henry 1861
Fulton Robert Brank 1932
Furbish Edward Brown 1860
Gachel Charles Nicholas 1843
Gage Charles Stafford 1925
Gaillard Edward McCrady 1919
Gaillard, Jr. Samuel Gourdin 1916
Gaines Edwin Frank 1975
Gaines Milton J. 1956
Galbraith Evan Griffith 1950
Gale Frederick Scott 1983
Gallaudet Edson Fessenden 1893
Gallaudet Herbert Draper 1898
Gallico III G. Gregory 1968
Galvin Michael Gerard 1971
Gammell Arthur Amory 1911
Gardner Robert Abbe 1912
Garfield Newell 1918
Garnsey Walter Wood 1930
Garnsey William Herrick 1960
Garnsey William Smith 1933
Garnsey, Jr. Walter W. 1967
Garrison Elisha Ely 1897
Garvey John Joseph 1929
Gates Artemis L. 1918
Gates Edward Raymond 1976
Gerard Sumner 1897
Gibbs Josiah Willard
Gibson, Jr. Richard Channing 1976
Giegengack, Jr. Robert F. 1960
Gifford Richard C. 1954
Gile Clement D. 1939
Gile Clement Moses 1914
Gile Lawrence Maclester 1978
Gill B. 1936
Gill Brendan 1963
Gill Charles Otis 1889
Gill George Metcalf 1888
Gill Michael Gates 1963
Gillespie Kenrick S. 1929
Gillespie, Jr. S. Hazard 1932
Gillette Augustus Canfield 1841
Gillette Curtenius 1897
Gillette, Jr. Howard Frank 1964
Gilman Daniel Coit 1852
Gisen, Jr. Arthur R. 1954
Glaenzer Georges Brette 1907
Gleason William Henry 1853
Glover III Charles Carroll 1940
Goedecke William Skinner 1947
Goldberg Richard Julius 1977
Gonzalez Timoteo F. 1974
Goodenough John Bannister 1944
Goodyear Robert M. 1949
Gordon Alexander Blucher 1834
Gordon Edward McGuire 1938
Gordon George Arthur 1934
Gould Anthony 1877
Gould James 1918
Gould James Gardner 1845
Gow Robert Haigh 1955
Grammar Christopher 1843
Grandine Thomas Allan 1981
Granger Gideon 1843
Granger John Albert 1855
Grant Edward Dromgoole 1858
Graves Henry Solon 1892
Graves William Phillips 1891
Graves, Jr. Earl Gilbert 1984
Grayson James Gordon 1940
Grayson William Cabell 1944
Grayson, Jr. Cary Travers 1942
Grayson, Jr. William Cabell 1977
Gready William Postell 1842
Green Benjamin P. 1973
Green Charles Grady 1955
Green Edmund Frank 1880
Green Henry Sherwood 1879
Green James Payne 1857
Green Rudolph 1975
Greenberg Stephen David 1970
Greene Waldo Wittenmyer 1930
Greenway James Cowan 1900
Gregory Daniel Seelye
Griggs John Cornelius 1889
Griggs Maitland Fuller 1896
Griggs, Jr. Herbert Stanton 1928
Grimes David Charles 1948
Griswold Dwight Torrey 1908
Griswold William Edward Schenck 1899
Grossman Jay Alan
Grove Manasses Jacob 1929
Grover Thomas Williams 1874
Growel Alfred 1853
Grubb Charles Ross 1873
Gruener Gustav 1884
Guernsey Raymond Gano 1902
Guidotti Hugh G. 1955
Guinzburg Thomas Henry 1950
Gulliver Henry Strong 1875
Gulliver William Curtis 1870
Guthrie III Robert K. 1968
Gwin Samuel Lawrence 1930
Gwin, Jr. Samuel Lawrence 1963
Haas Frederick Peter 1935
Hadden Briton 1920
Hadley Arthur Twining 1876
Hadley Hamilton 1919
Hadley Morris 1916
Hadley James
Haffner, Jr. Charles C. 1919
Haight Ducald Cameron 1847
Haight George Winthrop 1928
Haight, Jr. Charles S. 1952
Haines Thomas Frederick David 1924
Haldeman Richard Jacobs 1851
Hale, Jr. Eugene 1898
Hall Daniel Emerson 1834
Hall Edward Tuck 1941
Hall Gordon
Hall Jesse Angell 1936
Hall John Loomer 1894
Hall John Manning 1866
Hall Robert A. 1930
Hall Stanley
Hall William Kittredge 1859
Hall, Jr. Frederick Bagry 1933
Hallett John Folsom 1934
Halpin Thomas M. 1971
Halsey Jacob 1842
Halsey, Jr. Ralph Wetmore 1942
Hambleton Thomas Edward 1934
Hamilton William 1962
Hamlin Charles B. 1961
Hamlin Chauncey Jerome 1903
Hannahs Diodate Cushman 1859
Hansen Roger Allen 1955
Harding John Wheeler 1845
Harding Wilder Bennett 1867
Hare Clinton Larue 1887
Hare Meredith 1894
Harman Archer 1913
Harman, Jr. Archer 1945
Harmar Josiah W.
Harper, Jr. Harry Halsted 1934
Harriman Edward Roland ‘Bunny’ Noel1917
Harriman William Averell 1913
Harris Henry Reeder 1836
Harrison Burton Norvel 1859
Harrison Fairfax 1890
Harrison Francis Burton 1895
Harrison Fred Harold 1942
Harrison George Leslie 1910
Harrison Henry Baldwin 1846
Hart Dennis Charles 1976
Hart Roswell 1843
Hart Rufus Erastus 1833
Hartley Cavour 1912
Hartshorn Joseph William 1867
Haskell Robert Chandler 1858
Haslam Lewis Scofield 1890
Hatch Walter Tilden 1837
Hatem John J. 1980
Haven George Griswold 1887
Havens Daniel William 1843
Hawley David 1846
Hay Logan 1893
Hayden William Hallock 1847
Hayes Rutherford B.
Healy, Jr. Harold Harris 1943
Heard Albert Farley 1853
Heaton Edward 1869
Hebard Albert 1851
Hebard Daniel 1860
Hedge Thomas 1867
Heermance Edgar Laing 1858
Heffelfinger Frank Peavey 1920
Heffelfinger George Wright Peavy 1924
Heinz II Henry John 1931
Helfenstein Charles Philip 1841
Helmer Charles Downs 1852
Heminway Bartow Lewis 1921
Hemphill James Tierney 1959
Henen William Davison 1842
Henningsen, Jr. Victor William 1950
Henston Douglas Robert 1984
Hernandez Carols Arturo 1971
Heron John 1910
Hersey John Richard 1936
Herskovits David Nathaniel 1984
Hessberg II Albert 1938
Hewitt Brower 1903
Hewitt Henry H. 1963
Hewitt Thomas Browning 1864
Hidden Edward 1885
Hiers Richard Hyde 1954
Higgins Anthony 1861
Highfill III Philip Henry 1973
Hill George Canning 1845
Hillard Lord Butler 1883
Hilles Frederick Whiley 1922
Hilles, Jr. Charles Dewey 1924
Hincks Edward Young 1866
Hincks John Howard 1872
Hincks John Morris 1920
Hincks John Winslow 1952
Hines Charles Daniel 1871
Hinkey Frank Augustus 1895
Hinsdale Frank Gilbert 1898
Hitchcock Henry 1879
Hitchcock Henry 1848
Hixon Robert 1901
Hoagland Donald Wright 1943
Hobbs Charles Buxton 1885
Hobson Francis Thayer 1920
Hobson Henry Wise 1914
Hodes Douglas Michael 1970
Hodges, Jr. William VanDerveer 1932
Hogan James Joseph 1905
Holbrook David Doubleday 1960
Holbrook, Jr. John 1959
Holden John Morgan 1944
Holden Rebuen A. 1940
Holland Henry Thompson 1962
Hollister Arthur Nelson 1858
Hollister Buell 1905
Hollister, Jr. John B. 1949
Holmbee Jeffrey Arthur 1979
Holmes George Burgwin 1945
Holmes John Grier 1934
Holmes John Milton 1857
Holmes Peter Samuel 1978
Holster Edwin Olaf 1894
Holt George Chandler 1866
Holt Henry Chandler 1903
Hook Noble 1978
Hooker John Worthington 1854
Hooker Thomas 1869
Hoopes Townsend Walter 1944
Hopkins John Morgan 1900
Hopping Benjamin 1872
Hopping James Mason 1840
Hord Stephen Young 1921
Hoston, Jr. Archibald Robinson 1939
Hothhkiss William Henry 1875
Hough Edward Clement 1849
Houghton Edward 1852
Houghton Walter Edwards 1924
Houston John Wallace 1834
Howard James Ernest 1966
Howard James Merriam 1909
Howard Oran Reed 1835
Howe Arthur 1912
Howe Elmer Parker 1876
Howe Gary Woodson 1958
Howe Henry Almy 1909
Howe II Harold 1940
Howland John 1894
Hoxon Archibald R.
Hoysradt Albert 1877
Hoysradt John McA. 1926
Hoysradt Warren J. 1901
Hoyt Joseph Gibson 1840
Hoyt Lydic 1906
Hubbard Richard Dudley 1839
Hubbard Oliver P.
Hudson Franklin Donald 1955
Hudson Ward Woodridge 1840
Huey Mark Christopher 1973
Huggins William Sidney 1842
Hughes Berrien 1905
Hull Louis Kossuth 1883
Hurd John Odman 1836
Hurd Richard Melanemon 1888
Huribut Joseph 1849
Huribut, Jr. Gordon Buckland 1945
Husted James William 1892
Hyatt Robert Underwood 1837
Hyde Alvan Pinney 1845
Hyde Donald R. 1912
Hyde Frank Eldridge 1879
Hyde Frederick Walton 1911
Hyde William Waldo 1876
Hyde, Jr. Louis Kepler 1923
Ingalls David Sinton 1920
Ingalls, Jr. David Sinton 1956
Ingersoll James Wernham Dunsford 1892
Inman Robert D. 1971
Isbell Orland Sidney 1888
Isham Edward Swift 1891
Isham Henry Peter 1917
Isham John Beach 1869
Ives Chauncey Bradley 1928
Ives Gerard M. 1925
Ives Sherwood Bissell 1893
Ives Charles
Jack Thomas Mckinney 1853
Jackson George E.
Jackson Henry Rootes 1839
Jackson John Herrick 1934
Jackson Joseph Cooke 1857
Jackson Terrence John 1970
Jackson William E. 1941
James Ellery Sedgewick 1917
James Henry Ammon 1874
James Norman 1890
James Robert Campbell 1894
James Walter Belknap 1879
James William Knowles 1878
James William Ellery Sedgewick
Jamieson, Jr. Thomas Crawford 1956
Janeway Charles Anderson 1930
Jay Pierre 1892
Jefferson Edward Francis 1909
Jenckes Marcien 1921
Jenkins Richard Elwood 1948
Jenks Almet Francis 1875
Jenks Paul Emmott 1884
Jenks Tudor 1878
Jennings Oliver Goud 1887
Jennings Percy Hall 1904
Jennings Walter 1880
Jessup J.B. 1942
Jesup James Riley 1840
Johnes Edward Rudolph 1873
Johnson Barclay 1882
Johnson Charles Frederick 1855
Johnson George Asbury 1853
Johnson Joseph (Joe) Hale 1935
Johnston Frank 1835
Johnston Henry Phelps 1862
Johnston Ross 1870
Johnston William Curtis 1860
Johnston William Preston 1852
Johnstone Henry Webb 1916
Jones Alfred Henry 1893
Jones Dwight Arven 1875
Jones Frank Hatch 1875
Jones Frederick Scheetz 1884
Jones George Gill 1914
Jones Luther Maynard 1860
Jones Seaborn Augustus 1838
Jones Theodore S. 1933
Jones Walter Clyde 1925
Jordan Ralph Edward 1923
Joshan Henry Porter
Judson Frederick Newton 1866
Judson Isaac Nichols 1873
Jung Michael 1984
Kelley L.M. 1937
Kellogg Charles Poole 1890
Kellogg Fred William 1883
Kellogg Stephen Wright 1846
Kellogg W.W. 1939
Kelly II W.C. 1944
Kelsey Clarence 1878
Kemp J.B. 1942
Kemp Philip Sperry 1950
Kendall John Newton 1834
Kendall, Jr. William Burrage 1887
Kenerson Vertner 1891
Kennedy Thomas 1845
Kent Albert Emmett 1853
Kent William 1887
Keppelman John Arthur 1901
Kernochan Francis Edward 1861
Kernochan Frederic 1898
Kernochan Joseph Frederic 1863
Kerr Albert Boardman 1897
Kerry John Forbes 1966
Ketcham Henry Holman 1914
Key Thomas Marshall 1838
Kilborne William Skinner 1935
Kilcullen John M. 1934
Killredge George Alvar 1855
Kilrea Walter C. 1954
Kimball Arthur Reed 1877
Kimball John Edwin 1858
Kimball Walter S. 1934
King Lyndon Marrs 1910
King Stoddard 1914
Kingsbury Howard Thayer 1926
Kingsley Charles C. 1959
Kingsley Henry Coit 1834
Kingsley William L.
Kinne William 1848
Kinney Herbert Evelyn 1871
Kiphuth Delaney 1941
Kirby Jacob Brown 1849
Kirchwey George W. 1942
Kitchel Cornelius Ladd 1862
Kitchel Cornelius Porter 1897
Kitchel William Lloyd 1892
Kittle John Caspar 1904
Kittredge Frank Dutton 1952
Klots, Jr. Allen Trafford 1943
Klots Allen Trafford 1909
Knapp Farwell 1916
Knapp Howard Hoyt 1882
Knapp John Merrill 1936
Knapp Wallace Percy 1886
Kneeland Y. 1890
Knight Augustus 1910
Knight Samuel 1887
Knoll George Tapscott 1878
Knox Hugh Smith 1907
Kolar Button Ward 1968
Kosturko William Theodore 1971
Kwok Wei-Tai
Ladd, Jr. Louis Williams 1930
Lagercrantz Bengt M. 1965
Laidley Forrest David 1966
Lalley Patrick William 1977
Lamb Albert Eugene 1867
Lamb Albert Richard 1903
Lambert Adrian VanSinderen 1893
Lambert Alexander 1884
Lambert Alfred 1843
Lambert Edward Scott 1984
Lambert Edward Wilberforce 1854
Lambert Paul Christopher 1950
Lampman Lewis 1866
Lampson George 1855
Lampson William 1862
Lane William Griswold 1843
Lanier Alexander Chalmers 1844
Lapham Lewis Abbot 1931
Lapham Raymond White 1928
Larned William Augustua
Larner Robert Johnson 1922
Lathe Herbert William 1873
Lathrop John Hiram 1905
Laudon, Jr. Mortimer Hamlin 1932
Lavelli, Jr. Anthony 1949
Law William Fabian 1837
Law William Lyon 1838
Lawler Quentin John 1977
Lawrance Thomas Garner 1884
Lawrence Gary Martin 1980
Lea James Neilsen 1834
Lea Robert Brinkley 1871
Leaf Edmund 1841
Lear Henry 1869
Learned Dwight Whitney 1870
Learned William Law 1841
Leavatt Ashley 1900
Leavenworth Donald Loyal 1947
LeBore Barry William
Lee Samuel Henry 1858
LeFevre Ronald Eaton 1962
Legore Harry William 1917
Leighton James 1881
Leiper Joseph McCarrell 1949
Lent John Abram 1843
Leone Frederick Anthony 1982
Leverett Miles Watson 1976
Levering Walter B. 1933
Levin Charles Herbert 1971
Lewis Ashel Hooker 1833
Lewis Charlton Miner 1886
Lewis Charlton T.
Lewis George Emanuel 1974
Lewis Henry 1842
Lewis John 1868
Lewis Mark Sanders 1972
Libbey Frank 1867
Lightfoot Richard Bissett 1959
Ligon Thomas B. 1962
Liles Coit Redfearn 1973
Lilley Robert McGregor 1967
Lilley, Jr. Frank Walder 1943
Lilley John
Lindenberg John Townsend 1932
Lindgren Richard Hugo 1960
Lindley Frances Vinton 1933
Lindsay David A. 1944
Lindsay, Jr. Dale Alton 1961
Lindy Peter Barnes
Linton Stephen Duncan 1846
Lippincott David McCord 1949
Lippincott William Jackson 1914
Lippitt Henry 1909
Litt David Geoffrey 1984
Litt Willard David 1921
Little Mitchell Stuart 1907
Little Robbins 1851
Little Stuart W. 1944
Livingston Herman 1879
Livingston II Richard H. B. 1969
Loeser Frederic William 1931
Logan Walter Seth 1910
Lohmann Carl Albert 1910
Lombard James Kittredge 1854
Lombardi Cornelius Ennis 1911
Longstreth George B. 1930
Lonsdorf David B. 1973
Look Allen M. 1927
Look Frank Byron 1930
Lord Charles Edwin 1949
Lord Franklin Atkins 1898
Lord George de Forest 1854
Lord Oswald Bates 1926
Lord William Galey 1922
Lord Winston 1959
Lorenson David Harold 1979
Loucks, Jr. Vernon R. 1957
Loughran Anthony Hookey 1957
Love Ralph Frank 1951
Lovejoy Winslow Meston 1925
Lovell Joseph 1844
Lovett August Sidney 1913
Lovett Robert Abercrombie 1918
Lovett Sidney 1950
Luce Henry Robinson 1920
Luckey Charles Pinckney 1923
Luckey Charles Pinckney 1950
Ludden William 1850
Lufkin Chauncey F. 1951
Lufkin Dan Wende 1953
Lufkin Elgood Moulton 1925
Lufkin, Sr. Peter Wende 1949
Luman Richard John 1925
Lumpkin Richard Anthony 1957
Lunt Storer Boardman 1921
Lusk Peter A. 1960
Lusk William Thompson 1924
Lutz Karl Evan 1972
Lydgate William A. 1931
Lyman Chester Smith 1837
Lyman Chester Wolcott 1882
Lynch Dennis Patrick 1964
Lynch R. Vincent 1945
Lynde Charles James 1838
Lyon George Armstrong 1900
MacDonald II Ranald 1915
MacDonald II Richard J. 1972
MacDonald II Stephen Joseph 1973
Mack Richard Gesrtle 1948
MacKenzie Kenneth Malcolm 1975
Maclean, J.H. 1943
MacLean, Jr. Kenneth 1961
MacLeish Archibald 1915
MacLeish William H. 1950
MacLellan George Boardman 1858
MacLellan William 1835
MacVeagh Franklin 1862
MacWhorter Alexander 1842
Madden B. Patrick 1969
Madden John Beckwith 1941
Maffitt Thomas Skinner 1899
Magee James McDevitt 1899
Magee John Gillespie 1906
Magruder Benjamin Drake 1856
Mallon Guy Ward 1885
Mallon Henry Neil 1917
Mallon John Howard 1919
Mallon Thomas Ridgway 1945
Mallory William Neely 1924
Mallory, Jr. Barton Lee 1928
Malloy Terrence R. 1956
Manice William DeForest 1851
Manross Newton Spaulding 1850
Mansfield Howard 1871
Manville, Jr. Hiram Edward 1929
Marburg Theodore
March Daniel 1840
Marinelli David Leonard 1978
Marmaduke Vincent 1852
Marsh William Lee 1963
Marshall John Birnie 1953
Marshall Samuel Davies 1833
Martin George Greene 1893
Martin George Lockwood 1836
Martin William A.P.
Marvin Joseph Howard 1836
Marvin Joseph Howard 1876
Mason Alfred Bishop 1871
Mason Edward G.
Mason Henry Burratt 1870
Mather Frederick Ellsworth 1833
Mathews Craig 1951
Mathias II Philip 1955
Matthessen Francis Otto 1923
Matthews Albert 1842
Mattlin Fred W. 1973
Mayer Charles Theodore 1951
Mayor Michael B. 1959
McAfee William Andrew 1982
McAndrew Alexander 1913
McBride Jonathan Evans 1964
McBride Wilber 1882
McCall Henry 1840
McCallum Revell 1924
McCallum, Jr. Robert Davis 1968
McCarthy Charles Edward 1960
McClintock Norman 1891
McClung Lee 1892
McClure Archibald 1912
McClure James Gore King 1870
McClure, Jr. James Gore King 1906
McCormick Henry 1852
McCormick, Jr. Alexander Agnew 1919
McCrary, Jr. John Reagan 1932
McCullough David G. 1955
McCutchen Samuel St. John 1870
McDonnell John Vincent 1911
McElroy Benjamin Thomas 1945
McGaughey, Jr. Guy Ennis 1945
McGauley John Michael 1933
McGee Donald Ashbrook 1906
McGregor Jack F. 1956
McHenry James 1920
McHenry John 1885
McIntosh Harris 1927
McKee Elmore Mcneill 1919
McKee Lanier 1895
McKee M. Dunn 1896
McKinney William Allison 1868
McLallen P. Fredinand 1847
McLane James Price 1953
McLaren Michael G. 1972
McLaughlin Edward Tompkins 1883
Mclean Charles Fraser 1864
Mclean John Helm 1943
McLean III Robert 1950
McLeash Archibald
McLemore, Jr. John Briggs 1937
McMillan James Howard 1888
McMillan Philip Hamilton 1894
McMillan William Charles 1884
McNally Edward E. 1979
McNamara Thomas Philip 1951
McPhee Stephen Joseph 1973
McQuaid William Adolph 1889
Mead Frederick 1871
Mead Winter 1919
Meek John Burgess 1960
Mehta Arjay Singh 1976
Melton, Jr. William Davis 1924
Menton James Paul 1956
Menton John Dennis 1953
Merriam Alexander Ross 1872
Merriam George Spring 1864
Merrill Henry Riddle 1929
Merrill Payson 1865
Merritt Henry Newton 1912
Mesick Richard Smith 1848
Messimer, Jr. Robert L. 1931
Metcalf Harold Grant 1904
Metcalfe Henry Laurens 1849
Metcalfe Orrick 1845
Meyer, Jr. Russell William 1954
Meyers Bryan Fitch 1982
Michel Anthony Lee 1926
Middlebrook Louis Shelton 1915
Miles James Browning 1849
Miles Richard Curtis 1937
Miller Allanson Douglas 1864
Miller Andrew Otterson 1939
Miller Dudley Livingston 1943
Miller Francis William 1842
Miller George Douglas 1870
Miller James Ely 1904
Miller James Whipple 1967
Miller Phineas Timothy 1833
Miller Thomas Clairborne 1970
Miller Wentworth Earl 1969
Miller, Jr. Charles Lewis 1939
Mills Alfred 1847
Mills Edward Ensign 1934
Mills Ethelbert Smith 1835
Mills James Paul 1932
Misner Timothy Charles
Mitchell Donald Grant 1841
Mitchell Harry H. 1939
Mitchell John Hanson 1861
Mitchell, Jr. H. Coleman 1967
Mitinger Joseph Berry 1953
Montesano III Michael John 1983
Montgomery Grenville Dodge 1898
Moody Thomas Hudson 1843
Moore David Clement 1973
Moore Eliakim Hastings 1883
Moore Frank Wood 1903
Moore Georg Foot 1872
Moore James I. 1947
Moore Richard Anthony 1936
Moore William Eves 1847
Moorhead William S. 1906
Morehead William S. 1945
Morey, Jr. Robert Willis 1958
Morgan James W. 1971
Morgan Robert McNair 1970
Morgenstern Marc Jaime 1976
Morison David Whipple 1888
Morison Samuel Benjamin 1891
Morison Stanford Newel 1892
Morris Edward Dafydd 1849
Morris Luzon 1854
Morris Ray 1901
Morse John Bolt 1934
Morse Samuel Finley Brown 1907
Morse Sidney Nelson 1890
Morton, Jr. Thruston Ballard 1954
Moseley Thomas Wilder 1948
Moseley Spencer D. 1943
Moser Richard Eugene 1963
Moses Jack Thomas 1979
Moyer Douglas Richard 1972
Mulford David Humphrey 1846
Mulford Elisha 1855
Mulhern Daniel Kevin 1980
Mullins Frederic Parsons 1912
Munn John 1847
Munroe George Edmund 1874
Murchison Brian Cameron 1974
Murchison Robert W. 1982
Murpee Samuel Sloan
Murphy Frederick James 1910
Murphy Gerald Clery 1912
Musser John Miller 1930
Neale James Brown 1896
Neigher Geoffrey Mark 1967
Nelson Rensselaer Russell 1846
Nettleton Edward Payson 1856
Neville James E. 1921
Nevins William Bessell 1846
Newel Stanford 1861
Newman Thomas Montgomery 1977
Newton, Jr. James Quigg 1933
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Nichols Edward 1934
Nichols William Allen 1983
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Noble Lawrence Mason 1927
Noble, Jr. Lawerence Mason 1953
Noble Frederick A.
Noel Christopher 1983
Nondorf Kurt D. 1979
Nordhaus William D. 1963
Norris William Herbert 1839
Northrop Cyrus 1857
Northrop Birdsey G.
Northrup Robert Smitter 1960
Norton Wiliam Bunnell 1925
Norton, Jr. George Washington 1923
Novkov David A. 1953
Novosel David Gerard 1981
Noyes Edward MacArthur 1971
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O’Brien, Jr. Philip 1945
O’Connell Timothy James 1963
O’Keefe Regis James 1981
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O’Neill, Jr. Eugene Gladstone 1932
Oberlin John P. 1957
Ogden Alfred 1932
Ohene-Frempong Kwaku 1970
Oler Wesley M. 1916
Oler, Jr. Clark Kimberly 1976
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Olsen Albert William 1917
Ord Joseph Pacificus 1873
Ordway Henry Choate 1880
Orr Andrew Alexander 1956
Orrick Andrew Downey 1940
Orrick, Jr. William H. 1937
Osborn Richard 1914
Osborne Arthur Sherwood 1882
Osborne Thomas Burr 1881
Otis James Sanford 1919
Overton John William 1917
Owen Charles Hunter 1860
Owen Edward Thomas 1872
Owen Henry Elijah 1864
Owens Samuel L. 1978
Packard Lewis Richard 1856
Paddock Brace Whitman 1900
Page Robert Guthrie 1922
Paine Levi Leonard 1856
Paine Ralph Delahaye 1894
Paine, Jr. Ralph D. 1929
Painter Henry McMahon 1884
Palmer Arthur Edward 1930
Palmer Charles Edward 1947
Palmer Harry Herbert 1883
Palmer William Henry 1864
Palmer II L. Guy 1957
Paris Irving 1915
Park William Edwards 1861
Parker Grenville 1898
Parker Robert Boyd 1933
Parker Wilbur 1880
Parker William White Wilson 1893
Parkin William 1874
Parrott Joseph Robinson 1883
Parsons Francis 1893
Parsons Henry McIlvaine 1933
Parsons Langdon 1921
Partridge Sidney Catlin 1880
Patela James Gerald
Patterson George Washington 1914
Patterson Lee 1922
Patterson Morehead 1920
Patterson Thomas Cleveland 1927
Patton John 1875
Paul Charles Henry 1912
Payne Harry
Payson Henry Silas 1872
Peck Tracy 1861
Peck, Jr. Arthur John 1962
Peitz William Learned 1931
Pelly Bernard Berenger 1923
Pendexter John Fowler 1958
Percy Frederick Bosworth 1877
Perit Pelatia
Perkins John 1840
Perkins Nathaniel Shaw 1842
Perkins Samuel C.
Perkins Thomas Albert 1858
Perkins William 1840
Perrin Bernadotte 1869
Perrin John 1879
Perrin John Bates 1909
Perrin Lee James 1906
Perrin Lester William 1908
Perry David Brainard 1863
Perry David Bulkey 1977
Perry John Hoyt 1870
Perry Wilbert Warren 1871
Pershing Richard Warren 1966
Peters Daniel James 1970
Peters Elliot Remsen 1980
Peters Eric Brooks 1979
Peters Frank George 1886
Peters John Andrew 1842
Peters Kenneth Graham 1981
Peters William Allison 1880
Peterson Paul Clifford 1981
Pfau, Jr. George Harold 1948
Phelan Howard T. 1958
Phelps Edward Johnson 1886
Phelps Sheffield 1886
Phelps William Walter 1860
Phelps Zira Bennett 1895
Philbin Jesse Holladay 1913
Philbin II Stephen 1910
Phinney Elihu 1846
Pickett Lawrence Kimball 1941
Piel Geoffrey D. 1978
Pierce Frederick Erastus 1904
Pierson Charles Wheeler 1886
Pierson William Seward 1836
Pillsbury Edmund Pennington 1936
Pillsbury, Jr. John Sargent 1935
Pinchot Amos Richards Eno 1897
Pinchot Gifford 1889
Pinckard Thomas Cicero 1848
Pinela Carlos 1983
Pinney John Mercer 1965
Pionzio Dino John 1950
Platt Henry Barstow 1882
Platt Lewis Alfred 1879
Polich Richard Frank 1954
Pollock George Edward 1878
Pollock William 1882
Pomeroy John Norton 1887
Pond Jeffrey Craig 1965
Poole William Frederick 1891
Poore Charles Graydon 1926
Porter Edward Clarke 1858
Porter III Gilbert Edwin 1916
Porter John A.
Porter Noah
Post Russell Lee 1927
Post, Jr. Russell Lee 1958
Potter Roderick 1902
Potwin Lemuel Stoughton 1854
Powers Richard Hart
Pratt George 1857
Pratt Julius Howard 1842
Pratt William Hall Brace 1864
Prentice John Rockefeller 1928
Prentice Samuel Oscar 1873
Preston Henry Kirk 1836
Preston James Marshall 1967
Preston John Louis 1958
Preston Ord 1899
Price Frank Julian 1892
Price Ross E. 1954
Price, Jr. Charles Baird 1941
Price, Jr. Raymond Kissam 1951
Prideaux Tom 1930
Prindle Thomas Harrison 1964
Pugsley Isaac P. 1864
Pulaski, Jr. Charles Alexander 1964
Pumpelly Harold Armstrong 1915
Purnell Charles Thomas 1854
Putnam James Osborne 1839
Putnam Phelps 1916
Pyle Michael J. 1961
Quarles III James Perrin 1965
Rachlin David Isaiah 1982
Rafferty John Chandler 1835
Ramsdell Charles Benjamin 1872
Rand Stuart Craig 1909
Randolph Francis Fitz 1911
Rankin B. Courtney 1936
Rankin Robert 1845
Ranney George Alfred 1934
Rathborne Joseph Cornelius 1931
Raymond George T.P. 1949
Raymond Henry Hunter 1841
Raymond Henry Warren 1869
Read Richard Rollins 1947
Reed Edward Snover 1951
Reed Harry Lathrop 1889
Reed Lansing Parmalee 1904
Reid Jasper 1982
Reigeluth Douglas Scott 1975
Reilly John Sylvester 1915
Reponen Robert Gordon 1954
Ribeiro Carlos Fernando 1838
Rich Eugene Lamb 1838
Richards Davi Alan 1967
Richards George 1840
Richardson Allan Harvey 1901
Richardson Gardner 1905
Richardson Rufus Byam 1869
Richardson Walker 1849
Richie Wallace Parks 1927
Riggs Benjamin Clapp 1865
Rimar III Stephen 1977
Ripley George Coit 1862
Ritchie, Jr. Wallace Parks 1957
Ritterbush, Jr. Stephen G. 1972
Rizzo Robert John 1978
Robb James Madison 1844
Robb John Hunter 1843
Robbins Edwards Denmore 1874
Robbins William Wells 1927
Roberts Ellis Henry 1850
Roberts, Jr. Charles Holmes 1916
Roberts, Jr. George Brooke 1952
Robertson Charles Franklin 1859
Robertson Robert 1833
Robertson, Jr. Howard Copland 1928
Robeson Abel Bellows 1837
Robinson Frederick Flower 1927
Robinson George Chester 1856
Robinson Henry Seymour 1889
Robinson John Trunbull 1893
Robinson John Trunbull 1937
Robinson Lucius Franklin 1843
Robinson Lucius Franklin 1885
Robinson, Jr. H.C. 1947
Roby Joseph 1893
Roby Samuel Sidney 1888
Rockefeller Percy Avery 1900
Rockwell Foster Harry 1906
Rockwell John 1849
Rodd David B. 1940
Rodd III Thomas 1935
Rodman Robert Simpson 1879
Rogers D. 1898
Rogers Derby 1893
Rogers Edmund Pendleton 1905
Rogers Herman Livingston 1914
Rogers John 1887
Root Alexander Porter 1861
Root Reginald Dean 1926
Root Wells 1922
Rose Jonathan Chapman 1963
Ross Lancelot Patrick 1928
Ross Thomas Bernard 1951
Ross William Baldwin 1852
Rowe, Jr. Thomas D. 1984
Rowland John T. 1911
Rowland William Sherman 1836
Roy John Marcus 1978
Rulon-Miller Patrick 1963
Rumsey David McIver 1966
Rumsley Bronson Case 1902
Runnalls John Felch Bertram 1937
Russell Frank Ford 1926
Russell Philip Gray 1876
Russell Richard George 1981
Russell Richard Warren 1951
Russell William Huntington 1833
Ryan Joseph Mather 1951
Ryan III Allan A. 1954
Ryle Ernest 1892
Saffen David 1975
Safford George Blagden 1852
Safford Theodore Lee 1920
Sage Dean 1897
Sage Henry Manning 1890
Salbeh Richard Alan 1972
Saleh Muhammad Ahmed 1968
Salisbury Edward Elbridge
Salzman Mark Joseph 1982
Sanderson Benjamin 1909
Sanford Charles Frederick 1847
Sanhago Eddie 1982
Sanon James M. 1967
Sargent Joseph Weir 1920
Sargent Murray 1905
Savage Bouifelle 1932
Savage Josiah 1846
Sawyer, Jr. Homer Eugene 1913
Scarborough William Smith 1837
Scattergood Thomas B. 1970
Schermerhorn Alfred Cosler 1920
Schermerhorn Amos Egmont 1938
Schlesinger Daniel Adam 1977
Schmidt Thomas Carr 1968
Schnaitter Spencer Jason 1954
Schollander Donald Arthur 1968
Schuyler Eugene 1859
Schwab John Christopher 1886
Schwab Laurence vonPost 1913
Schwarzman Stephen Allen 1969
Scott Eben Greenough 1858
Scott Eugene Lytton 1960
Scott Henry Clarkson 1925
Scott Larry Glenn 1977
Scott Stewart Patterson 1928
Scott William Iain 1973
Scudder Doremus 1880
Seabury Mortimer Ashmfad 1909
Seaman, Jr. Irving 1945
Sears Joshua Montgomery 1877
Seeley George Wheeler 1961
Seeley John Edward 1835
Seeley John Frank 1860
Seeley William Wallace 1862
Seeley, Jr. Edward Howard 1878
Selander Duane Arthur 1969
Selden Edward Griffin 1870
Senay Edward Charles 1952
Setson, Jr. Eugene W. 1934
Seward William Henry 1888
Seymour Charles 1908
Seymour Horatio 1867
Seymour John Forman 1835
Seymour John Sammis 1875
Seymour S.O. 1857
Seymour, Jr. Charles 1935
Seymour Thomas Day
Shackelford Robert Campbell 1958
Sharp Jonathan Douglas 1983
Shattuck John H.F. 1965
Shattuck John Waldon 1870
Shearer Sextus 1861
Shedden William Martindale 1915
Sheffield George St. John 1863
Sheffield James Rockwell 1959
Sheffield John Van Loon 1983
Shelden Allan 1913
Shelly Hugh White 1835
Shepard B. 1936
Shepard Charles R.S. 1951
Shepard Donald Carrington 1950
Shepard Donald Carrington 1916
Shepard Frank Parsons 1917
Shepard Lorrin Andrews 1914
Shepard Roger Bulkley 1908
Shepard, Jr. Lloyd Montgomery 1939
Shepard, Jr. Roger Bulkley 1935
Shepley Arthur 1895
Sheppard Walter Bradley 1887
Sherill Franklin Goldwaithe 1949
Sherman Frederick Roger 1836
Shevlin Edward Leonard 1921
Shipley Joseph L.
Shipman Arthur Leffingwell 1886
Shirley Arthur 1869
Shugart Thorne Martin 1955
Sill Edward Rowland 1861
Sill George Griswold 1852
Silliman Professor Benjamin 1837
Simmons Frank Hunter 1898
Simmons Wallace Erskine 1890
Simms William Erskine 1891
Simpson Kenneth Farrand 1917
Sincerrbeaux Frank H. 1902
Singer Ronald Leonard 1966
Singleton II Thomas 1961
Skibell Steven Alan 1984
Skrovan Stephen Thomas 1979
Slade Francis Henry 1954
Slade John Milton 1851
Sloane Henry Thompson 1866
Sloane John 1905
Sloane Thomas Chalmers 1868
Sloane William 1895
Slocum Edwin Lyon 1915
Smith Bradford Curie 1967
Smith Bruce Donald 1906
Smith Charles Edgar 1865
Smith Edward Curtis 1875
Smith Eugene 1859
Smith Frederick W. 1966
Smith Herbert Augustine 1889
Smith J. Gregory 1912
Smith John Donnell 1847
Smith Lloyd Hilton 1929
Smith Rufus Riggs 1876
Smith Traver 1919
Smith William Thayer 1860
Smith Winthrop Davenport 1896
Smith III Bruce Donald 1960
Smith, Jr. Howard Freeman 1942
Smock Morgan Robert
Smyth Nathan Ayer 1897
Snell Raymond Franklin 1918
Solbert Peter O. A. 1941
Solley Fred Palmer 1888
Solley Robert Folger 1922
Somerville John W. 1957
Soper Willard Burr 1904
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Spaulding Josiah Augustus 1945
Spear Wesley John 1974
Spears Robert Samuel 1952
Speed James Breckinridge 1956
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Spencer Edward Curran 1880
Spencer George Gilman 1834
Spencer James M. 1867
Sperry Watson Robertson 1871
Spitz Robert W. 1962
Spitzer, Jr. Lyman B. 1935
Spofford Charles Merville 1924
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Sprole Frank Arnoit 1942
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Stackpole Edward James 1915
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Stanberry, Jr. William Burks 1966
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Staven Karl Eric 1981
Steadman John Montague 1952
Steadman Richard Cooke 1955
Stearns Edwin Russell 1870
Stebbins Hart Lyman 1933
Stebbins Henry Hamilton 1862
Steele Henry Thornton 1846
Sterling John William 1864
Stetson, Jr. Eugene William 1934
Stevens Albert B. 1940
Stevens Eric Eugene 1980
Stevens Frederic William 1858
Stevens Henry 1843
Stevens Marvin A. 1925
Stevens, Jr. Joseph B. 1938
Stevenson Charles 1979
Stevenson Charles P. 1941
Stevenson Donald D. 1925
Stevenson Frederic Augustus 1888
Stewart Charles Jacob 1918
Stewart Donald Ogden 1916
Stewart James C. 1961
Stewart James Ross 1931
Stewart John 1921
Stewart Percy Hamilton 1890
Stewart Peter Hellwege 1928
Stewart Philip Battel 1886
Stewart Potter 1937
Stewart Zeph 1943
Stewart, Jr. Walter Eugene 1894
Stiles Joseph 1846
Stiles William Augustus 1859
Stille Charles Janeway 1839
Stillman George Schley 1935
Stillman Leland Stanford 1894
Stillman Peter Gordon Bradley 1940
Stimson Henry Albert 1865
Stimson Henry Lewis 1888
Stokes Anson Phelps 1896
Stokes Harold Phelps 1909
Stokes Horace Sheldon 1889
Stokes, Jr. Anson Phelps 1927
Stone Charles Martin 1878
Stone Harold 1902
Stone Louis T. 1937
Stone William 1865
Storrs Cordial 1850
Stratton Daniel James 1981
Street Henry Abbott 1912
Strikler Samuel Alexander 1848
Strong Caleb 1835
Strong Charles Hall 1870
Strong George Arthur 1871
Strong Henry Barnard 1922
Strout, Jr. Edwin Augustus 1912
Struzzi Thomas Allen 1975
Stubbs Alfred 1835
Stucky William McDowell 1940
Sturges Hezekiah 1841
Sturges Thomas Benedict 1835
Sullivan Charles S. 1978
Sullivan Corlis Esmonde 1900
Sulzer James S. 1973
Sumner Graham 1897
Sumner William Graham 1863
Sumner William S. 1945
Sutherland Richard Orlin 1931
Sutphin Stuart Bruen 1903
Swan Joseph Rockwell 1902
Swayne John W.
Sweet Carroll Fuller 1899
Sweet Edwin Forrest 1871
Swenson, Jr. Edward Francis 1940
Swift John Morton 1836
Swift Walker Ely 1915
Swil Roy Anthony 1967
Swinburne Louis Judson 1879
Swoope Walter Moore 1931
Tabor John Kaye 1943
Taft Alphonso 1833
Taft Charles Phelps 1918
Taft Henry Waters 1880
Taft Horace Dutton 1883
Taft Hulbert 1900
Taft Peter Rawson 1867
Taft Robert Alphonso 1910
Taft Thomas Prindle 1971
Taft William Howard 1878
Talcott Thomas Grosvenor 1838
Tarbell Frank Bigelow 1873
Taylor Alan McLean 1902
Taylor Alfred Judd 1859
Taylor John Phelps 1862
Taylor Richard 1845
Teig Joseph Benjamin 1980
Tener Alexander Campbell 1912
Tener Kinley John 1916
Terry H.P. Baldwin 1935
Terry Wyllys 1885
Terry III Wyllys 1962
Thacher James Kingsley 1868
Thacher John Seymour 1877
Thacher Sherman Day 1883
Thacher Thomas 1904
Thacher Thomas 1871
Thacher Thomas Anthony 1835
Thacher Thomas Day 1904
Thacher William Larned 1887
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Thomas John Allen Miner 1922
Thomas Walton D. 1941
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Thompson Donald 1903
Thompson John R. 1938
Thompson Jonathan Penfield 1970
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Thompson, Jr. William McIlwaine 1969
Thomson Clifton Samuel 1924
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Thorne Charles Hedges McKinstry 1974
Thorne David Hoadley 1966
Thorne Peter Brinckerhoff 1940
Thorne Samuel Brinckeroff 1896
Thorson Peter Andreas 1959
Thorton Edmund Braxton 1954
Thorton James Carlton 1908
Throwbridge Mason 1902
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Tighe Richard Lodge 1923
Tighe, Jr. Laurence Goizian 1941
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Tilney II Robert Fingland 1905
Tingey Douglas Stuart 1981
Tinker Anson Phelps 1868
Todd John E
Tom III Chan Bruce 1977
Tomlinson Henry A.
Tompkins Ray 1884
Towers Jonathan David 1982
Townsend George Henry 1908
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Townsend William Kneeland 1871
Townsend, Jr. Frederic dePeyster 1922
Tracy Evarts 1890
Train Robert 1936
Traphagen Peter A. 1956
Trask Charles Hooper 1846
Treadway Ralph Bishop 1896
Trotter Silas Flournoy 1839
Trower C. Christopher 1970
Troy Alexander 1981
Trudeau, Jr. Edward Livingston 1896
Trudeau Garry B. 1970
Truesdale Calvin 1907
Tucker Luther B.D. 1931
Tucker, Jr. Carl 1947
Tufts Bowen Charlton 1935
Tumpane Timothy Michael 1980
Turner Elvin D. 1978
Turner Harold McLeod 1937
Turner Harold McLeod 1905
Turner Spencer 1906
Tuttle George Coolidge 1907
Tuttle George Montgomery 1877
Tweedy Henry Hallam 1891
Tweedy John Hubbard 1834
Tweedy Samuel 1868
Twichell Charles Pratt 1945
Twining Alexander C.
Twombly Alexander Stevenson 1854
Twombly Edward Bancroft 1912
Twombly Henry Bancroft 1884
Tyler Charles Mellen 1855
Tyler Cheever 1959
Tyler George Palmer 1836
Tyler Moses Coit 1857
Tytus Edward Jefferson 1868
Urquijo Conzalo 1984
Van deGraaff Adrian Sebastian 1881
Van Dine Vance 1949
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Van Sinderen Henry Brinsmade 1911
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Varnum Joseph Bradley 1838
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Vincent Francis T. 1931
Vogt Tom D. 1943
von Holt Herman Vademar 1916
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Vorys Martin W. 1952
Vose Elliot Evans 1945
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Wack Damon deBlois 1929
Waddell Geoffrey Hamilton 1961
Wade Levi Clifford 1866
Wadsworth, Jr. James Wolcott 1898
Wagner Victor Edmond 1983
Waite Morrison R. 1888
Waite Morrison Remick 1837
Walcott Frederic Collin 1891
Walcott William Stuart 1894
Wald Stephen George 1975
Walden Howard Talbott 1881
Walden Robert S. 1972
Walden Russell 1874
Waldsworth James Jeremiah
Wales Leonard Eugene 1845
Walker Charles Rumford 1916
Walker George Nesmith 1919
Walker Horace Flecher 1889
Walker Jeffrey Pond 1944
Walker John Mercer 1931
Walker John S. 1942
Walker Joseph Burbeen 1844
Walker Louis 1936
Walker Ray Carter 1955
Walker Samuel Johnson 1888
Walker Stoughton 1928
Walker III George Herbert 1953
Walker, Jr. George Herbert 1927
Walker, Jr. Samuel Sloan 1948
Walker Francis Amasa
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Wallace Henry Mitchell 1903
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Warren George U. 1945
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Warren John Davock 1927
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Washington George 1839
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Watson William Berkley 1940
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Weaver Howard Sayer 1948
Weber John William 1953
Wedsworth James Jeremiah 1854
Weed George Haines 1938
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Weinstein Adam 1984
Weir John Ferguson
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Welch William Henry 1870
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Wells Harold Sherman 1907
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Westerfield Richard H. 1979
Wetherell John Walcott 1844
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Wheeler Lawrence Raymond 1911
Wheeler Thomas Beardsley 1958
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Wheelwright Joseph Stober 1897
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White Charles Atwood 1854
White George 1848
White George Edward 1866
White Henry Charles 1881
White Henry Dyer 1851
White John Richards 1903
White Oliver Sherman 1864
White Percy Gardiner 1902
White Roger Sherman 1859
White Warren Benton 1941
White William Gardiner 1942
White Henry
Whitehead Mather Kimball 1936
Whitehouse Charles Sheldon 1947
Whitehouse Edwin Sheldon 1905
Whitehouse William Fitzhugh 1899
Whitman Jr. Francis Slingluff 1938
Whitmore, Jr. James Allen 1944
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Whitney Edward Payson 1854
Whitney Emerson Cogswell 1851
Whitney Harry Payne 1894
Whitney James Lyman 1856
Whitney Joseph Ernest 1882
Whitney Payne 1898
Whitney William Collins 1863
Whitney William Dwight
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Wickes Forsyth 1898
Wickes Thomas P. 1874
Wickwire Winthrop Ross 1949
Wiggin Frederick H. 1904
Wilbur John Smith 1933
Wilbur Richard Emery 1938
Wilbur, Jr. John Smith 1964
Wilcox Giles Buckingham 1848
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Wilhelmi Frederick William 1939
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Willard Charles Hastings 1926
Williams Burch 1939
Williams Darryl L. 1976
Williams Henry 1837
Williams James Willard 1908
Williams Norman Alton 1897
Williams Ralph Omsted 1861
Williams Samuel Goode 1932
Williams Thomas Scott 1838
Williams William Bruce 1957
Williams William Perkins 1839
Williams S. Wells
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Wilson A. 1844
Wilson Daniel Richard 1979
Wilson Hugh Robert 1906
Wilson John 1847
Wilson Zebuon Vance 1972
Winston Dudley 1886
Winston Frederick Seymour 1877
Winter Daniel R. 1920
Winter II Edwin Wheeler 1921
Wiseman II Stephen 1984
Witter, Jr. Dean 1944
Wittherbee Frank Spencer 1874
Wittherbee W.C. 1880
Wodelll R.A. 1910
Wolcott Elizer 1839
Wolfe II Stephen 1964
Wood George Ingersoll 1833
Wood John Seymour 1874
Wood William C. 1868
Woodford Oswald Langdon 1850
Woodlock Douglas Preston 1969
Woodruff Francis Eben 1864
Woodruff George Washington 1889
Woodruff Timothy Lester 1879
Woodsum, Jr. Harold Edward 1953
Woodward John Butler 1883
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Woodward Stanley 1922
Woodward Stanley 1855
Woodward William Herrick 1858
Woolfolk William Grey 1841
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Woolley Knight 1917
Woolsey Heathcote Morison 1907
Woolsey Theodore Salisbury 1872
Woolsey Theodore White
Worcester Edwin Dean 1876
Worcester Franklin Eldred 1882
Worcester Wilfred James 1885
Word Charles Francis 1891
Wray James McAlpin 1836
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Wright Henry Burt 1898
Wright Henry Park 1868
Wright II William Henry 1982
Yang James Ting-Yeh 1982
Yardley Henry Albert 1855
Yarnall Thomas C. 1841
Yent, Jr. James B. 1979
Yerkes Stephen 1837
Young Benham Daniel 1848
Zallinger Peter Franz 1965
Ziegler Stan Warren 1972
Zigerelli Lawrence John 1980
Zorthian Barry 1941
Zorthian Gregory Jannig 1975
Zucker Bernard Benjamin 1962

Adolf Hitler’s Master Race Idea’s Came From U.S. (Eugenics) Mad Scientists

Hitler Made Eugenics Famous,
But He Took It From United States

WASHINGTON, Aug. 28 (JTA) — Hitler victimized an entire continent and exterminated millions in his quest for a so-called “Master Race.”The world thought Hitler was mad and barely understood his rationales. But the concept of a white, blond-haired, blue-eyed master Nordic race was not Adolf Hitler’s.

The Idea was created in the United States at least two decades before Hitler came to power.

It was the product of the American eugenics movement.

Eugenics was the racist American pseudoscience designed to wipe out all human beings except those who conformed to a Nordic stereotype. The philosophy was enshrined into national policy by forced sterilization, segregation laws and marriage restrictions that were enacted in 27 states.

Ultimately, eugenics coercively sterilized some 60,000 Americans, barred the marriage of thousands, forcibly segregated thousands more in colonies and persecuted untold numbers in ways we are just learning.

Only after eugenics and race biology became entrenched as an American ideal was the campaign transplanted to Germany, where it came to Hitler’s attention.

Hitler studied American eugenic laws and rationales and sought to legitimize his innate race hatred and anti-Semitism by medicalizing it and wrapping it in a pseudoscientific facade. Indeed, Hitler was able to attract many reasonable Germans by claiming that science was on his side.

While Hitler’s race hatred sprung from his own mind, the intellectual outlines of the eugenics Hitler adopted in 1924 were strictly American.

Eugenics would have been little more than bizarre parlor talk had it not been for massive financing by corporate philanthropies, specifically the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harriman railroad fortune.

They were in league with America’s most respected scientists from prestigious universities such as Harvard, Yale and Princeton. These academicians faked and twisted data to serve eugenics’ racist aims.

The Carnegie Institution effectively invented the American movement when it established a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor, on Long Island. This complex stockpiled millions of index cards on ordinary Americans as the movement carefully plotted the removal of families, bloodlines and whole peoples.

From Cold Spring Harbor, eugenics advocates agitated in the legislatures of America as well as in the nation’s social service agencies and associations.

The Harriman railroad fortune paid local charities, such as the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration, to seek out Jewish, Italian and other immigrants in New York and other crowded cities and subject them to deportation, confinement or forced sterilization.

The Rockefeller Foundation helped found and fund the German eugenics program, and it even funded the program that ultimately sent Josef Mengele into Auschwitz.

The Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the Max Planck Institute — the successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute — all gave unlimited access and unstinting assistance in the course of this investigation. These organizations all have worked hard to help the world discover their pasts and have set an example of philanthropic openness.

Long before the advent of America’s leading philanthropies, however, eugenics was born as a scientific curiosity in the Victorian age.

In 1863, Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, theorized that if talented people married only other talented people, the result would be measurably better offspring.

At the turn of the last century, Galton’s ideas were imported into the United States just as Gregor Mendel’s principles of heredity were rediscovered. American eugenic advocates believed with religious fervor that Mendelian concepts explaining the color and size of peas, corn and cattle also governed the social and intellectual character of man.

In the early twentieth century, America was reeling from the upheaval of massive immigration and torn by post-Reconstruction chaos. Race conflict was everywhere.

Elitists, utopians and so-called progressives fused their smoldering race fears and class bias with their desire to make a better world, reinventing Galton’s eugenics as a repressive and racist ideology. Their intent: to populate the earth with vastly more of their own socioeconomic and biological kind, and less or none of everyone else.

The superior species the eugenics movement sought was not merely tall, strong and talented; eugenicists craved blond, blue-eyed Nordic types. This group alone, they believed, was fit to inherit the earth.

In the process, the movement intended to subtract blacks, Indians, Hispanics, Eastern Europeans, Jews, dark-haired hill folk, poor people, the infirm — essentially, anyone outside the gentrified genetic lines drawn up by American raceologists.

How would they do it? By identifying so-called “defective” family trees and subjecting them to lifelong segregation and sterilization programs to kill their bloodlines. The grand plan was literally to wipe away the reproductive capability of the “unfit” — those deemed weak and inferior.

Eighteen solutions were explored in a Carnegie-supported study in 1911 called “Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder’s Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population.”

Although the eighth of the 18 solutions was euthanasia, the breeders believed it was too early to implement this solution. Instead, the main solution was the rapid expansion of forced segregation and sterilization, as well as increased marriage restrictions.

The most commonly suggested method of eugenicide in America was a “lethal chamber,” or gas chamber.

Even the United States Supreme Court endorsed eugenics as national policy. In an infamous 1927 decision, Buck v. Bell, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, “It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind . . . Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

Years later, the Nazis quoted Holmes’ words in their own defense at the Nuremberg trials.

During the 1920s, Carnegie Institution eugenics scientists cultivated deep personal and professional relationships with Germany’s fascist eugenicists.

In 1924, when Hitler wrote “Mein Kampf,” he frequently quoted American eugenic ideology and openly displayed a thorough knowledge of American eugenics and its phraseology.

“There is today one state,” Hitler wrote, “in which at least weak beginnings toward a better conception [of immigration] are noticeable. Of course, it is not our model German Republic, but the United States.”

Hitler proudly told his comrades just how closely he followed American eugenic legislation.

“I have studied with great interest the laws of several American states concerning prevention of reproduction by people whose progeny would, in all probability, be of no value or be injurious to the racial stock,” he told a fellow Nazi.

Hitler even wrote a fan letter to American eugenic leader Madison Grant, calling his race-based eugenics book, “The Passing of the Great Race,” his “bible.”

Hitler’s deputy, Rudolf Hess, coined a popular adage in the Reich: “National Socialism is nothing but applied biology.”

Hitler’s struggle for a superior race became a mad crusade for a Master Race, exchanging the American term “Nordic” for “Germanic” or “Aryan.”

Race science, racial purity and racial dominance became the driving force behind Hitler’s Nazism. Nazi eugenics ultimately would dictate who would be persecuted in a Reich-dominated Europe, how people would live and how they would die.

Nazi doctors would become the unseen generals in Hitler’s war against the Jews and other Europeans deemed inferior. Doctors would create the science, devise the eugenic formulas, and even hand-select the victims for sterilization, euthanasia and mass extermination.

During the Reich’s first decade, eugenicists across America welcomed Hitler’s plans as the logical fulfillment of their own decades of research and effort. Ten years after Virginia passed its 1924 sterilization act, Joseph DeJarnette, superintendent of Virginia’s Western State Hospital, complained in the Richmond Times-Dispatch, “The Germans are beating us at our own game.”

In 1934, sterilizations in Germany were accelerating beyond 5,000 per month.

Returning from a visit to Germany, the California eugenic leader C. M. Goethe bragged to a key colleague, “You will be interested to know, that your work has played a powerful part in shaping the opinions of the group of intellectuals who are behind Hitler in this epoch-making program. Everywhere I sensed that their opinions have been tremendously stimulated by American thought . . . I want you, my dear friend, to carry this thought with you for the rest of your life, that you have really jolted into action a great government of 60 million people.”

Beyond the scientific road map, America used its money to fund and help found Germany’s eugenic institutions.

By 1926, Rockefeller had donated some $410,000 — almost $4 million in today’s dollars — to hundreds of German researchers.

In May 1926, for example, Rockefeller awarded $250,000 to the German Psychiatric Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, which became the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. Among the leading psychiatrists at the German Psychiatric Institute was Ernst Rudin, who became director and eventually an architect of Hitler’s systematic medical repression.

Another in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute’s complex of eugenic institutions was the Institute for Brain Research. Since 1915, it had operated out of a single room, but everything changed when Rockefeller money arrived in 1929.

A grant of $317,000 allowed the institute to construct a major building and take center stage in German race biology. The Institute for Brain Research received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation during the next several years.

Leading the Brain institute was — once again — Hitler’s medical henchman Rudin. Rudin’s organization became a prime director and recipient of murderous experimentation and research conducted on Jews, Gypsies and others.

Beginning in 1940, thousands of Germans taken from old age homes, mental institutions and other custodial facilities were systematically gassed. In all, between 50,000 and 100,000 were killed.

“While we were pussy-footing around,” said Leon Whitney, executive secretary of the American Eugenics Society, “the Germans were calling a spade a spade.”

A special recipient of Rockefeller funding was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin.

For decades, American eugenicists had craved twins to advance their research into heredity. The institute was now prepared to undertake such research on an unprecedented level.


At the time of Rockefeller’s endowment, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a hero in American eugenics circles, functioned as a head of the Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. Rockefeller funding of the Institute for Anthropology continued directly and through other research conduits during Verschuer’s early tenure.

In 1935, Verschuer left the Institute to form a rival eugenic facility in Frankfurt that was much heralded in the American eugenic press.

Research on twins in the Third Reich exploded, backed up by government decrees mobilizing all twins. At about that time, Verschuer wrote in Der Erbarzt, a eugenic doctors’ journal he edited, that Germany’s war would yield a “total solution to the Jewish problem.”

Verschuer had a long-time assistant. His name was Josef Mengele.

On May 30, 1943, Mengele arrived at Auschwitz. Verschuer notified the German Research Society, “My assistant, Dr. Josef Mengele (M.D., Ph.D.) joined me in this branch of research. He is presently employed as Hauptsturmfuhrer [captain] and camp physician in the Auschwitz concentration camp. Anthropological testing of the most diverse racial groups in this concentration camp is being carried out with permission of the SS Reichsfuhrer [Heinrich Himmler].”

Mengele began searching boxcars that arrived at the camp for twins. When he found them, he performed beastly experiments, scrupulously wrote up the reports and sent the paperwork back to Verschuer’s institute for evaluation.

Often, cadavers, eyes and other body parts also were dispatched to Berlin’s other eugenic institutes.

Rockefeller executives never knew of Mengele. With few exceptions, the foundation had ceased all eugenic studies in Nazi-occupied Europe before World War II erupted in 1939.

But by that time the die had been cast.

The talented men Rockefeller and Carnegie had financed, the great institutions they helped found and the science they helped create took on a scientific momentum of their own.

What stopped the race biologists of Berlin, Munich and Auschwitz?

Certainly, the Nazis felt they were unstoppable; they imagined a thousand-year Reich of superbred men.

But something did vanquish Mengele and his colleagues. On June 6, 1944, the Allies invaded at Normandy and began defeating the Nazis, town by town and often street by street. They closed in on Germany from the west, while the Soviet army overran the Auschwitz death camp from the east on Jan. 27, 1945. Mengele fled.

Auschwitz was indeed the last stand of eugenics. The science of the strong almost completely prevailed in its war against the weak. Almost. Edwin Black is the New York Times bestselling author of the award-winning “IBM and the Holocaust” and the just-released “War Against the Weak” (“Four Walls Eight Windows”), from which this article is adapted. He can be reached via

THE REPORT FROM IRON MOUNTAIN, Proof Of A Environmentalist Movement Take Over To Bring U.S. Under World Government

This is taken from Chapter 24 of The Creature from Jekyll Island © 2002 by G. Edward Griffin

The substance of these stratagems [for the weakening of the United States so it
can be more easily merged into a global government based on the model of
collectivism] can be traced to a think-tank study released in 1966 called the Report
from Iron Mountain. Although the origin of the report is highly debated, the document
itself hints that it was commissioned by the Department of Defense under Defense
Secretary, Robert McNamara and was produced by the Hudson Institute located at the
base of Iron Mountain in Croton-on-Hudson, New York. The Hudson Institute was
founded and directed by Herman Kahn, formerly of the Rand Corporation. Both
McNamara and Kahn were members of the CFR.
The self-proclaimed purpose of the study was to explore various ways to
“stabilize society.” Praiseworthy as that may sound, a reading of the Report soon
reveals that the word society is used synonymously with the word government.
Furthermore, the word stabilize is used as meaning to preserve and to perpetuate. It is
clear from the start that the nature of the study was to analyze the different ways a
government can perpetuate itself in power, ways to control its citizens and prevent
them from rebelling.
It was stated at the beginning of the Report that morality was not an issue. The
study did not address questions of right or wrong; nor did it deal with such concepts as
freedom or human rights. Ideology was not an issue, nor patriotism, nor religious
precepts. Its sole concern was how to perpetuate the existing government.
The Report said:
Previous studies have taken the desirability of peace, the importance of human
life, the superiority of democratic institutions, the greatest “good” for the greatest
number, the “dignity” of the individual, the desirability of maximum health and
longevity, and other such wishful premises as axiomatic values necessary for the
justification of a study of peace issues. We have not found them so. We have
attempted to apply the standards of physical science to our thinking, the principal
characteristic of which is not quantification, as is popularly believed, but that, in
Whitehead’s words, “…it ignores all judgments of value; for instance, all esthetic and
moral judgments.”1 The major conclusion of the report was that, in the past, war has been the only reliable means to achieve that goal. It contends that only during times of war or the
threat of war are the masses compliant enough to carry the yoke of government
without complaint. Fear of conquest and pillage by an enemy can make almost any
burden seem acceptable by comparison. War can be used to arouse human passion and
patriotic feelings of loyalty to the nation’s leaders. No amount of sacrifice in the name
of victory will be rejected. Resistance is viewed as treason. But, in times of peace,
people become resentful of high taxes, shortages, and bureaucratic intervention. When
they become disrespectful of their leaders, they become dangerous. No government
has long survived without enemies and armed conflict. War, therefore, has been an
indispensable condition for “stabilizing society.” These are the report’s exact words:
The war system not only has been essential to the existence of nations as
independent political entities, but has been equally indispensable to their stable
political structure. Without it, no government has ever been able to obtain
acquiescence in its “legitimacy,” or right to rule its society. The possibility of war
provides the sense of external necessity without which no government can long
remain in power. The historical record reveals one instance after another where the
failure of a regime to maintain the credibility of a war threat led to its dissolution, by
the forces of private interest, of reactions to social injustice, or of other disintegrative
elements. The organization of society for the possibility of war is its principal political
stabilizer…. It has enabled societies to maintain necessary class distinctions, and it
has insured the subordination of the citizens to the state by virtue of the residual war
powers inherent in the concept of nationhood.2

The report then explains that we are approaching a point in history where the
old formulas may no longer work. Why? Because it may now be possible to create a
world government in which all nations will be disarmed and disciplined by a world
army, a condition which will be called peace. The report says: “The word peace, as we
have used it in the following pages, … implies total and general disarmament.”3 Under
that scenario, independent nations will no longer exist and governments will not have
the capability to wage war. There could be military action by the world army against
renegade political subdivisions, but these would be called peace-keeping operations,
and soldiers would be called peace keepers. No matter how much property is
destroyed or how much blood is spilled, the bullets will be “peaceful” bullets and the
bombs – even atomic bombs, if necessary – will be “peaceful” bombs.
The report then raises the question of whether there can ever be a suitable
substitute for war. What else could the regional governments use – and what could the
world government itself use – to legitimize and perpetuate itself? To provide an
answer to that question was the stated purpose of the study.
The Report from Iron Mountain concludes that there can be no substitute for
war unless it possesses three properties. It must (1) be economically wasteful, (2)
represent a credible threat of great magnitude, and (3) provide a logical excuse for
compulsory service to the government.

On the subject of compulsory service, the Report explains that one of the
advantages of standing armies is that they provide a place for the government to put
antisocial and dissident elements of society. In the absence of war, these forced-labor
battalions would be told they are fighting poverty or cleaning up the planet or
bolstering the economy or serving the common good in some other fashion. Every
teenager would be required to serve – especially during those years in which young
people are most rebellious against authority. Older people, too, would be drafted as a
means of working off tax payments and fines. Dissidents would face heavy fines for
“hate crimes” and politically incorrect attitudes so, eventually, they would all be in the
forced-labor battalions. The Report says:
We will examine … the time-honored use of military institutions to provide
anti-social elements with an acceptable role in the social structure. … The current
euphemistic clichés – “juvenile delinquency” and “alienation” – have had their
counterparts in every age. In earlier days these conditions were dealt with directly by
the military without the complications of due process, usually through press gangs or
outright enslavement. …
Most proposals that address themselves, explicitly or otherwise, to the postwar
problem of controlling the socially alienated turn to some variant of the Peace Corps
or the so-called Job Corps for a solution. The socially disaffected, the economically
unprepared, the psychologically uncomfortable, the hard-core “delinquents,” the
incorrigible “subversives,” and the rest of the unemployable are seen as somehow
transformed by the disciplines of a service modeled on military precedent into more
or less dedicated social service workers. …
Another possible surrogate for the control of potential enemies of society is the
reintroduction, in some form consistent with modern technology and political
processes, of slavery. … It is entirely possible that the development of a sophisticated
form of slavery may be an absolute prerequisite for social control in a world at peace.
As a practical matter, conversion of the code of military discipline to a euphemized
form of enslavement would entail surprisingly little revision; the logical first step
would be the adoption of some form of “universal” military service.4

The Report considered ways in which the public could be preoccupied with
non-important activities so that it would not have time to participate in political debate
or resistance. Recreation, trivial game shows, pornography, and situation comedies
could play an important role, but blood games were considered to be the most
promising of all the options. Blood games are competitive events between individuals
or teams that are sufficiently violent in nature to enable the spectators to vicariously
work off their frustrations. As a minimum, these events must evoke a passionate team
loyalty on the part of the fans and must include the expectation of pain and injury on
the part of the players. Even better for their purpose is the spilling of blood and the
possibility of death. The common man has a morbid fascination for violence and
blood. Crowds gather to chant “Jump! Jump!” at the suicidal figure on a hotel roof.
Cars slow to a near stop on the highway to gawk at broken bodies next to a collision.
A schoolyard fight instantly draws a circle of spectators. Boxing matches and football
games and hockey games and automobile races are telecast daily, attracting millions
of cheering fans who give rapt attention to each moment of danger, each angry blow
to the face, each broken bone, each knockout, each carrying away of the unconscious
or possibly dying contestant. In this fashion, their anger at “society” is defused and
focused, instead, on the opposing team. The emperors of Rome devised the Circuses
and gladiator contests and public executions by wild beasts for precisely that purpose.
Before jumping to the conclusion that such concepts are absurd in modern
times, recall that during the 1985 European soccer championship in Belgium, the
spectators became so emotionally involved in the contest that a bloody riot broke out
in the bleachers leaving behind 38 dead and more that 400 injured. U.S. News &
World Report gives this account:
The root of the trouble: A tribal loyalty to home teams that surpasses an
obsession and, say some experts, has become a substitute religion for many. The
worst offenders include members of gangs such as Chelsea’s Anti-Personnel Firm,
made up of ill-educated young males who find in soccer rivalry an escape from
Still, the British do not have a patent on soccer violence. On May 26, eight
people were killed and more than 50 injured in Mexico City,… a 1964 stadium riot in
Lima, Peru, killed more than 300 – and a hotly disputed 1969 match between El
Salvador and Honduras led to a week-long shooting war between the two countries,
causing hundreds of casualties.
The U.S. is criticized for the gridiron violence of its favorite sport, football, but
outbursts in the bleachers are rare because loyalties are spread among many sports
and national pride is not at stake. Said Thomas Tutko, professor of psychology at
California’s San Jose State University: “In these other countries, it used to be their
armies. Now it’s their competitive teams that stir passions.”5
Having considered all the ramifications of blood games, The Report from Iron
Mountain concluded that they were not an adequate substitute for war. It is true that
violent sports are useful distracters and do, in fact, allow an outlet for boredom and
fierce group loyalty, but their effect on the nation’s psyche could not match the
intensity of war hysteria. Until a better alternative could be found, world government
would have to be postponed so that nations could continue to wage war.

In time of war, most citizens uncomplainingly accept their low quality of life
and remain fiercely loyal to their leaders. If a suitable substitute for war is to be found,
then it must also elicit that same reaction. Therefore, a new enemy must be found that
threatens the entire world, and the prospects of being overcome by that enemy must be
just as terrifying as war itself. The Report is emphatic on that point:
Allegiance requires a cause; a cause requires an enemy. This much is obvious;
the critical point is that the enemy that defines the cause must seem genuinely
formidable. Roughly speaking, the presumed power of the “enemy” sufficient to
warrant an individual sense of allegiance to a society must be proportionate to the size
and complexity of the society. Today, of course, that power must be one of
unprecedented magnitude and frightfulness.6
The first consideration in finding a suitable threat to serve as a global enemy
was that it did not have to be real. A real one would be better, of course, but an
invented one would work just as well, provided the masses could be convinced it was
real. The public will more readily believe some fictions than others. Credibility would
be more important than truth.
Poverty was examined as a potential global enemy but rejected as not fearful
enough. Most of the world was already in poverty. Only those who had never
experienced poverty would see it as a global threat. For the rest, it was simply a fact of
everyday life.
An invasion by aliens from outer space was given serious consideration. The
report said that experiments along those lines already may have been tried. Public
reaction, however, was not sufficiently predictable, because the threat was not
“credible.” Here is what the report had to say:
Credibility, in fact, lies at the heart of the problem of developing a political
substitute for war. This is where the space-race proposals, in many ways so well
suited as economic substitutes for war, fall short. The most ambitious and unrealistic
space project cannot of itself generate a believable external menace. It has been hotly
argued that such a menace would offer the “last best hope of peace,” etc., by uniting
mankind against the danger of destruction by “creatures” from other planets or from
outer space. Experiments have been proposed to test the credibility of an out-of-ourworld
invasion threat; it is possible that a few of the more difficult-to-explain “flying
saucer” incidents of recent years were in fact early experiments of this kind. If so,
they could hardly have been judged encouraging.
This report was released in 1966 when the idea of an alien presence seemed far
fetched to the average person. In the ensuing years, however, that perception has
changed. A growing segment of the population now believes that intelligent life forms
may exist beyond our planet and could be monitoring our own civilization. Whether
that belief is right or wrong is not the issue here. The point is that a dramatic
encounter with aliens shown on network television – even if it were to be entirely
fabricated by high-tech computer graphics or laser shows in the sky – could be used to
stampede all nations into world government supposedly to defend the Earth from
invasion. On the other hand, if the aliens were perceived to have peaceful intent, an
alternative scenario would be to form world government to represent a unified human
species speaking with a single voice in some kind of galactic federation. Either
scenario would be far more credible today than in 1966.

The final candidate for a useful global threat was pollution of the environment.
This was viewed as the most likely to succeed because it could be related to
observable conditions such as smog and water pollution– in other words, it would be
based partly on fact and, therefore, be credible. Predictions could be made showing
end-of-earth scenarios just as horrible as atomic warfare. Accuracy in these
predictions would not be important. Their purpose would be to frighten, not to inform.
It might even be necessary to deliberately poison the environment to make the
predictions more convincing and to focus the public mind on fighting a new enemy,
more fearful than any invader from another nation – or even from outer space. The
masses would more willingly accept a falling standard of living, tax increases, and
bureaucratic intervention in their lives as simply “the price we must pay to save
Mother Earth.” A massive battle against death and destruction from global pollution
possibly could replace war as justification for social control.
Did The Report from Iron Mountain really say that? It certainly did – and much
more. Here are just a few of the pertinent passages:
When it comes to postulating a credible substitute for war … the “alternate
enemy” must imply a more immediate, tangible, and directly felt threat of destruction.
It must justify the need for taking and paying a “blood price” in wide areas of human
concern. In this respect, the possible substitute enemies noted earlier would be
insufficient. One exception might be the environmental-pollution model, if the danger
to society it posed was genuinely imminent. The fictive models would have to carry
the weight of extraordinary conviction, underscored with a not inconsiderable actual
sacrifice of life. … It may be, for instance, that gross pollution of the environment can
eventually replace the possibility of mass destruction by nuclear weapons as the
principal apparent threat to the survival of the species. Poisoning of the air, and of the
principal sources of food and water supply, is already well advanced, and at first
glance would seem promising in this respect; it constitutes a threat that can be dealt
with only through social organization and political power. …
It is true that the rate of pollution could be increased selectively for this
purpose. … But the pollution problem has been so widely publicized in recent years
that it seems highly improbable that a program of deliberate environmental poisoning
could be implemented in a politically acceptable manner.
However unlikely some of the possible alternative enemies we have mentioned
may seem, we must emphasize that one must be found of credible quality and
magnitude, if a transition to peace is ever to come about without social disintegration.
It is more probable, in our judgment, that such a threat will have to be invented.8

The Report from Iron Mountain states that it was produced by a Special Study
Group of fifteen men whose identities were to remain secret and that it was not
intended to be made public. One member of the group, however, felt the Report was
too important to be kept under wraps. He was not in disagreement with its
conclusions. He merely believed that more people should read it. He delivered his
personal copy to Leonard Lewin, a well-known author and columnist who, in turn,
negotiated its publication by Dial Press. It was then reprinted by Dell Publishing.
This was during the Johnson Administration, and the President’s Special
Assistant for National Security Affairs was CFR member Walt Rostow. Rostow was
quick to announce that the report was a spurious work. Herman Kahn, CFR director of
the Hudson Institute, said it was not authentic. The Washington Post – which was
owned and run by CFR member Katharine Graham – called it “a delightful satire.”
Time magazine, founded by CFR-member Henry Luce, said it was a skillful hoax.
8 Ibid., pp. 66-67, 70-71. When the Report was written, terrorism had not yet been considered as a substitute for war. Since then, it has become the most useful of them all.
Then, on November 26, 1967, the Report was reviewed in the book section of the
Washington Post by Herschel McLandress, which was the pen name for Harvard
professor John Kenneth Galbraith. Galbraith, who also had been a member of the
CFR, said that he knew firsthand of the Report’s authenticity because he had been
invited to participate in it. Although he was unable to be part of the official group, he
was consulted from time to time and had been asked to keep the project a secret.
Furthermore, while he doubted the wisdom of letting the public know about the
Report, he agreed totally with its conclusions. He wrote:
As I would put my personal repute behind the authenticity of this document, so
would I testify to the validity of its conclusions. My reservations relate only to the
wisdom of releasing it to an obviously unconditioned public.9
Six weeks later, in an Associated Press dispatch from London, Galbraith went
even further and jokingly admitted that he was “a member of the conspiracy.”10
That, however, did not settle the issue. The following day, Galbraith backed off.
When asked about his “conspiracy” statement, he replied: “For the first time since
Charles II The Times has been guilty of a misquotation. … Nothing shakes my
conviction that it was written by either Dean Rusk or Mrs. Clare Booth Luce.”11
The reporter who conducted the original interview was embarrassed by the
allegation and did further research. Six days later, this is what he reported:
Misquoting seems to be a hazard to which Professor Galbraith is prone. The
latest edition of the Cambridge newspaper Varsity quotes the following (tape
recorded) interchange:
Interviewer: “Are you aware of the identity of the author of Report from Iron
Galbraith: “I was in general a member of the conspiracy but I was not the
author. I have always assumed that it was the man who wrote the foreword – Mr.
So, on at least three occasions, Galbraith publicly endorsed the authenticity of
the Report but denied that he wrote it. Then who did? Was it Leonard Lewin, after all?
In 1967 he said he did not. In 1972 he said that he did. Writing in The New York Times
Book Review Lewin explained: “I wrote the `Report,’ all of it. … What I intended was
simply to pose the issues of war and peace in a provocative way.”
But wait! A few years before that, columnist William F. Buckley told the New
York Times that he was the author. That statement was undoubtedly made tongue-incheek,
but who and what are we to believe? Was it written by Herman Kahn, John
Kenneth Galbraith, Dean Rusk, Clare Booth Luce, Leonard Lewin, or William F.
Buckley? In the final analysis, it makes little difference. The important point is that The
Report from Iron Mountain, whether written as a think-tank study or a political satire,
explains the reality that surrounds us. Regardless of its origin, the concepts presented
in it are now being implemented in almost every detail. All one has to do is hold the
Report in one hand and the daily newspaper in the other to realize that every major
trend in American life is conforming to the blueprint. So many things that otherwise
are incomprehensible suddenly become clear: foreign aid, wasteful spending, the
destruction of American industry, a job corps, gun control, a national police force, the
apparent demise of Soviet power, a UN army, disarmament, a world bank, a world
money, the surrender of national independence through treaties, and the ecology
hysteria. The Report from Iron Mountain is an accurate summary of the plan that has
already created our present. It is now shaping our future.

It is beyond the scope of this study to prove that currently accepted predictions
of environmental doom are based on exaggerated and fraudulent “scientific studies.”
But such proof is easily found if one is willing to look at the raw data and the
assumptions upon which the projections are based. More important, however, is the
question of why end-of-world scenarios based on phony scientific studies – or no
studies at all – are uncritically publicized by the CFR-controlled media; or why radical
environmental groups advocating collectivist doctrine and anti-business programs are
lavishly funded by CFR-dominated foundations, banks, and corporations, the very
groups that would appear to have the most to lose. The Report from Iron Mountain
answers those questions.
As the Report pointed out, truth is not important in these matters. It’s what
people can be made to believe that counts. “Credibility” is the key, not reality. There
is just enough truth in the fact of environmental pollution to make predictions of
planetary doom in the year two-thousand-something seem believable. All that is
required is media cooperation and repetition. The plan has apparently worked. People
of the industrialized nations have been subjected to a barrage of documentaries,
dramas, feature films, ballads, poems, bumper stickers, posters, marches, speeches,
13 “Report from Iron Mountain,” New Your Times, March 19, 1968, p. 8.
seminars, conferences, and concerts. The result has been phenomenal. Politicians are
now elected to office on platforms consisting of nothing more than an expressed
concern for the environment and a promise to clamp down on those nasty industries.
No one questions the damage done to the economy or the nation. It makes no
difference when the very planet on which we live is sick and dying. Not one in a
thousand will question that underlying premise. How could it be false? Look at all the
movie celebrities and rock stars who have joined the movement.
While the followers of the environmental movement are preoccupied with
visions of planetary doom, let us see what the leaders are thinking. The first Earth Day
was proclaimed on April 22, 1970, at a “Summit” meeting in Rio de Janeiro, attended
by environmentalists and politicians from all over the world. A publication widely
circulated at that meeting was entitled the Environmental Handbook. The main theme
of the book was summarized by a quotation from Princeton Professor Richard A. Falk,
a member of the CFR. Falk wrote that there are four interconnected threats to the
planet – wars of mass destruction, overpopulation, pollution, and the depletion of
resources. Then he said: “The basis of all four problems is the inadequacy of the
sovereign states to manage the affairs of mankind in the twentieth century.”14 The
Handbook continued the CFR line by asking these rhetorical questions: “Are nationstates
actually feasible, now that they have power to destroy each other in a single
afternoon?… What price would most people be willing to pay for a more durable kind
of human organization – more taxes, giving up national flags, perhaps the sacrifice of
some of our hard-won liberties?”15
In 1989, the CFR-owned Washington Post published an article written by CFR
member George Kennan in which he said: “We must prepare instead for … an age
where the great enemy is not the Soviet Union, but the rapid deterioration of our
planet as a supporting structure for civilized life.”16
On March 27, 1990, in the CFR-controlled New York Times, CFR member
Michael Oppenheimer wrote: “Global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation and
overpopulation are the four horsemen of a looming 21st century apocalypse. … as the
cold war recedes, the environment is becoming the No. 1 international security
The New York Times has been one of the principal means by which CFR policies are inserted into the mainstream of public opinion. The paper was purchased in 1896 by Alfred Ochs, with financial backing from CFR pioneer J.P. Morgan, Rothchild agent August Belmont, and Jacob Schiff, a CFR member, Lester Brown, heads up another think tank called the
Worldwatch Institute. In the Institute’s annual report, entitled State of the World 1991,
Brown said that “the battle to save the planet will replace the battle over ideology as
the organizing theme of the new world order.”18
In the official publication of the 1992 Earth Summit, we find this: “The world
community now faces together greater risks to our common security through our
impacts on the environment than from traditional military conflicts with one another.”
How many times does it have to be explained? The environmental movement
was created by the CFR. It is a substitute for war that they hope will become the
emotional and psychological foundation for world government.

The Club of Rome is a group of global planners who annually release end-ofworld
scenarios based on predictions of overpopulation and famine. Their
membership is international, but the American roster includes such well-known CFR
members as Jimmy Carter, Harlan Cleveland, Claiburne Pell, and Sol Linowitz. Their
solution to overpopulation? A world government to control birth rates and, if
necessary, euthanasia. That is a gentle word for the deliberate killing of the old, the
weak, and of course the uncooperative. Following the same reasoning advanced at
Iron Mountain, the Club of Rome has concluded that fear of environmental disaster
could be used as a substitute enemy for the purpose of unifying the masses behind its
program. In its 1991 book entitled The First Global Revolution, we find this:
In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that
pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit
the bill. … All these dangers are caused by human intervention. … The real enemy,
then, is humanity itself.19
Collectivist theoreticians have always been fascinated by the possibility of
controlling population growth. It excites their imaginations because it is the ultimate
bureaucratic plan. If the real enemy is humanity itself, as the Club of Rome says, then
partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co. It is now owned by CFR member Arthur Sulzberger, who is also the
publisher, and it is staffed by numerous CFR editors and columnists.
Humanity itself must become the target. Fabian Socialist Bertrand Russell expressed
it thus: I do not pretend that birth control is the only way in which population can be
kept from increasing. … War, as I remarked a moment ago, has hitherto been
disappointing in this respect, but perhaps bacteriological war may prove more
effective. If a Black Death could be spread throughout the world once in every
generation, survivors could procreate freely without making the world too full. …
A scientific world society cannot be stable unless there is world government.
… It will be necessary to find ways of preventing an increase in world population. If
this is to be done otherwise than by wars, pestilences and famines, it will demand a
powerful international authority. This authority should deal out the world’s food to the
various nations in proportion to their population at the time of the establishments of
the authority. If any nation subsequently increased its population, it should not on that
account receive any more food. The motive for not increasing population would
therefore be very compelling.21
Very compelling, indeed. These quiet-spoken collectivists are not kidding
around. For example, one of the most visible “environmentalists” and advocate of
population control was Jacques Cousteau. Interviewed by the United Nations
UNESCO Courier in November of 1991, Cousteau spelled it out. He said:
What should we do to eliminate suffering and disease? It is a wonderful idea
but perhaps not altogether a beneficial one in the long run. If we try to implement it
we may jeopardize the future of our species. It’s terrible to have to say this. World
population must be stabilized, and to do that we must eliminate 350,000 people per
day. This is so horrible to contemplate that we shouldn’t even say it, but it is just as
bad not to say it.

We can now understand how Mikhail Gorbachev, formerly the leader of one of
the most repressive governments the world has known, became head of a new
organization called the International Green Cross, which supposedly is dedicated to
environmental issues. Gorbachev has never denounced collectivism, only the label of
a particular brand of collectivism called Communism. His real interest is not ecology
but world government with himself assured a major position in the collectivist power
structure. In a public appearance in Fulton, Missouri, he praised the Club of Rome, of
which he is a member, for its position on population control.
Then he said:
One of the worst of the new dangers is ecological. … Today, global climatic
shifts; the greenhouse effect; the “ozone hole”; acid rain; contamination of the
atmosphere, soil and water by industrial and household waste; the destruction of the
forests; etc. all threaten the stability of the planet.23
Gorbachev proclaimed that global government was the answer to these threats
and that the use of government force was essential. He said: “I believe that the new
world order will not be fully realized unless the United Nations and its Security
Council create structures … authorized to impose sanctions and make use of other
measures of compulsion.”
Here is an arch criminal who fought his way up through the ranks of the Soviet
Communist Party, became the protégé of Yuri Andropov, head of the dreaded KGB,
was a member of the USSR’s ruling Politburo throughout the Soviet invasion of
Afghanistan, and who was selected by the Politburo in 1985 as the supreme leader of
world Communism. All of this was during one of the Soviet’s most dismal periods of
human-rights violations and subversive activities against the free world. Furthermore,
he ruled over a nation with one of the worst possible records of environmental
destruction. At no time while he was in power did he ever say or do anything to show
concern over planet Earth.
All that is now forgotten. Gorbachev has been transformed by the CFRdominated
media into an ecology warrior. He is calling for world government and
telling us that such a government will use environmental issues as justification for
sanctions and other “measures of compulsion.” We cannot say that we were not

The use of compulsion is an important point in these plans. People in the
industrialized nations are not expected to cooperate in their own demise. They will
have to be forced. They will not like it when their food is taken for global distribution.
They will not approve when they are taxed by a world authority to finance foreign
political projects. They will not voluntarily give up their cars or resettle into smaller
houses or communal barracks to satisfy the resource-allocation quotas of a UN
agency. Club-of-Rome member Maurice Strong states the problem:
In effect, the United States is committing environmental aggression against the
rest of the world. … At the military level, the United States is the custodian. At the
environmental level, the United States is clearly the greatest risk. … One of the worst
problems in the United States is energy prices – they’re too low. …
It is clear that current lifestyles and consumption patterns of the affluent
middle class … involving high meat intake, consumption of large amounts of frozen
and `convenience’ foods, ownership of motor-vehicles, numerous electric household
appliances, home and work-place air-conditioning … expansive suburban housing …
are not sustainable.
Mr. Strong’s remarks were enthusiastically received by world environmental
leaders, but they prompted this angry editorial response in the Arizona Republic:
Translated from eco-speak, this means two things: (1) a reduction in the
standard of living in Western nations through massive new taxes and regulations, and
(2) a wholesale transfer of wealth from industrialized to under-developed countries.
The dubious premise here is that if the U.S. economy could be reduced to, say, the
size of Malaysia’s, the world would be a better place. … Most Americans probably
would balk at the idea of the U.N. banning automobiles in the U.S.26
Who is this Maurice Strong who sees the United States as the environmental
aggressor against the world? Does he live in poverty? Does he come from a backward
country that is resentful of American prosperity? Does he himself live in modest
circumstances, avoiding consumption in order to preserve our natural resources? None
of the above. He is one of the wealthiest men in the world. He lives and travels in
great comfort. He is a lavish entertainer. In addition to having great personal wealth
derived from the oil industry in Canada – which he helped nationalize – Maurice
Strong was the Secretary-General of the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio; head of the 1972
UN Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm; the first Secretary-General of
the UN Environment Program; president of the World Federation of United Nations;
co-chairman of the World Economic Forum; member of the Club of Rome; trustee of
the Aspen Institute; and a director of the World Future Society. That is probably more
than you wanted to know about this man, but it is necessary in order to appreciate the
importance of what follows.

Maurice Strong believes – or says that he believes – the world’s ecosystems can
be preserved only if the affluent nations of the world can be disciplined into lowering
their standard of living. Production and consumption must be curtailed. To bring that
about, those nations must submit to rationing, taxation, and political domination by
world government. They will probably not do that voluntarily, he says, so they will
have to be forced. To accomplish that, it will be necessary to engineer a global
monetary crisis which will destroy their economic systems. Then they will have no
choice but to accept assistance and control from the UN.
This strategy was revealed in the May, 1990, issue of West magazine, published
in Canada. In an article entitled “The Wizard of Baca Grande,” journalist Daniel
Wood described his week-long experience at Strong’s private ranch in southern
Colorado. This ranch has been visited by such CFR notables as David Rockefeller,
Secretary-of-State Henry Kissinger, founder of the World Bank Robert McNamara,
and the presidents of such organizations as IBM, Pan Am, and Harvard.
During Wood’s stay at the ranch, the tycoon talked freely about
environmentalism and politics. To express his own world view, he said he was
planning to write a novel about a group of world leaders who decided to save the
planet. As the plot unfolded, it became obvious that it was based on real people and
real events. Wood continues the story:
Each year, he explains as background to the telling of the novel’s plot, the
World Economic Forum convenes in Davos, Switzerland. Over a thousand CEOs,
prime ministers, finance ministers, and leading academics gather in February to attend
meetings and set economic agendas for the year ahead. With this as a setting, he then
says: “What if a small group of these world leaders were to conclude that the principal
risk to the earth comes from the actions of the rich countries? And if the world is to
survive, those rich countries would have to sign an agreement reducing their impact
on the environment. Will they do it? … The group’s conclusion is `no.’ the rich
countries won’t do it. They won’t change. So, in order to save the planet, the group
decides: Isn’t the only hope for the planet that the industrialized civilizations collapse?
Isn’t it our responsibility to bring that about? …
“This group of world leaders,” he continues, “form a secret society to bring
about an economic collapse. It’s February. They’re all at Davos. These aren’t terrorists.
They’re world leaders. They have positioned themselves in the world’s commodity
and stock markets. They’ve engineered, using their access to stock exchanges and
computers and gold supplies, a panic. Then, they prevent the world’s stock markets
from closing. They jam the gears. They hire mercenaries who hold the rest of the
world leaders at Davos as hostages. The markets can’t close. The rich countries…”
And Strong makes a slight motion with his fingers as if he were flicking a cigarette
butt out the window.
I sit there spellbound. This is not any storyteller talking, this is Maurice Strong.
He knows these world leaders. He is, in fact, co-chairman of the Council of the World
Economic Forum. He sits at the fulcrum of power. He is in a position to do it.
“I probably shouldn’t be saying things like this,” he says.
Maurice Strong’s fanciful plot probably shouldn’t be taken too seriously, at least
in terms of a literal reading of future events. It is unlikely they will unfold in exactly
that manner – although it is not impossible. For one thing, it would not be necessary to
hold the leaders of the industrialized nations at gun point. They would be the ones
engineering this plot. Leaders from Third-World countries do not have the means to
cause a global crisis. That would have to come from the money centers in New York,
London, or Tokyo. Furthermore, the masterminds behind this thrust for global
government have always resided in the industrialized nations. They have come from
the ranks of the CFR in America and from other branches of the International
Roundtable in England, France, Belgium, Canada, Japan, and elsewhere. They are the
ideological descendants of Cecil Rhodes and they are fulfilling his dream.
It is not important whether or not Maurice Strong’s plot for global economic
collapse is to be taken literally. What is important is that men like him are thinking
along those lines. As Wood pointed out, they are in a position to do it. Or something
like it. If it is not this scenario, they will consider another one with similar
consequences. If history has proven anything, it is that men with financial and
political power are quite capable of heinous plots against their fellow men. They have
launched wars, caused depressions, and created famines to suit their personal agendas.
We have little reason to believe that the world leaders of today are more saintly than
their predecessors.
Furthermore, we must not be fooled by pretended concern for Mother Earth.
The call-to-arms for saving the planet is a gigantic ruse. There is just enough truth to
environmental pollution to make the show “credible,” as The Report from Iron
Mountain phrased it, but the end-of-earth scenarios which drive the movement
forward are bogus. The real objective in all of this is world government, the ultimate
doomsday mechanism from which there can be no escape. Destruction of the
economic strength of the industrialized nations is merely a necessary prerequisite for
ensnaring them into the global web. The thrust of the current ecology movement is
directed totally to that end.

This is taken from Chapter 24 of
The Creature from Jekyll Island:
A Second Look at the Federal Reserve,
27 “The Wizard of Baca Grande.” By Daniel Wood, West magazine, May 1990, p. 35.

John McCain, The Globalist Warmonger

McCain: Commoners Must Accept Globalization

Source: InfoWarsKurt Nimmo

Come November, it does not matter who “wins” the White House, the lot of the average American will be the same no matter if Obama, Clinton, or McCain sit in the White House. And that lot will be one of increasing misery as the late, great United States is converted into a slave labor gulag, little different than China.

McCain told the commoners of Youngstown, Ohio, as much yesterday. “Republican John McCain made a risky argument in a hard-hit Ohio steel town yesterday, telling residents that free trade can help solve their problems,” reports the Boston Globe. “That is a tough sell in communities that have hemorrhaged jobs as manufacturing moved overseas and cheap imports flooded the market. But McCain insisted that free trade is the solution and not the cause.”

See, the problem is the little people resist “free trade,” as in a free hand for multinational corporations to loot the third world and now the first world, soon to be a third world nation. “The biggest problem is not so much what’s happened with free trade, but our inability to adjust to a new world economy,” McCain said during a town hall-style meeting at Youngstown State University. “So we want people to be part of that revolution, and we’ve got to be part of that new economy, rather than try to cling to an old economy.”

In other words, adjust to increasing poverty and diminishment of opportunity. It is, after all, a “revolution,” never mind a greedy revolution of the bankers and multinat CEOs who are determined to “level the playing field” here in the United States. After all, as fed gangster Greenspan declared, the average American makes too much money. He and she will soon be on par with the average Chinese and Indian slave, toiling for a couple bucks a day, if that. McCain simply wants you to accept your fate. It’s part of the “New Economy” and you have no choice but to assimilate.

The presumptive GOP nominee, on a weeklong tour of “forgotten” places where people are struggling with poverty and job losses, made a stop at a shuttered steel fabricating plant and criticized Democrats Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama for saying, when they campaigned in the Ohio primary last month, that they would renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement.

Hand it to McCain for his honesty. NAFTA and its bastard children are not going anywhere, regardless of what the liars Clinton and Obama say. Get used to ever increasing poverty. Get ready for food riots like they have in Haiti and Egypt. Get ready to be a peasant. Get ready for the New Feudalism.

For McCain and his globalist handlers, this is a “revolution,” albeit a revolution of misery. Get on the platform, the train is leaving.

What Really Happened When McCain Was a POW?Alexander Cockburn

April 19, 2008

John McCain’s been getting kid-glove treatment from the press for years, ever since he wriggled free of the Keating scandal and his profitable association – another collaboration, you might say — with the nation’s top bank swindler in the 1980s. But nothing equals the astounding tact with which his claque on the press bus avoids the topic of McCain’s collaborating with his Vietnamese captors after he’d been shot down.

How McCain behaved when he was a prisoner is key. McCain is probably the most unstable man ever to have got this close to the White House. He’s one election away from it. Republican senator Thad Cochrane has openly said he trembles at the thought of an unstable McCain in the Oval Office with his finger on the nuclear trigger.

What if a private memory of years of collaboration in his prison camp gnaws at McCain, and bursts out in his paroxysms of uncontrollable fury, his rantings about “gooks” and his terrifying commitment to a hundred years of war in Iraq. What if “the hero” knows he’s a phony?
Doug Valentine has written the definitive history of the Phoenix Program in Vietnam. He knows about the POW experience. His dad, an Army man, was captured by the Japanese and sent to a POW camp in the Philippines for forced labor. Many of his mates died. Doug wrote a marvelous book about it, The Hotel Tacloban.

Now Valentine has picked up the unexploded bomb lying on McCain’s campaign trail this year. As he points out, he’s not the first. Rumors and charges have long swirled around McCain’s conduct as a prisoner. Fellow prisoners have given the lie to McCain’s claims. But Valentine has assembled the dossier. It’s devastating. We’re running it in our current CounterPunch newsletter and we strongly urge you to subscribe.

Some excerpts from Valentine’s indictment.

“War is one thing, collaborating with the enemy is another; it is a legitimate campaign issue that strikes at the heart of McCain’s character. . .or lack thereof. In occupied countries like Iraq, or France in World War II, collaboration to that extent spells an automatic death sentence.. . .The question is: What kind of collaborator was John McCain, the admitted war criminal who will hate the Vietnamese for the rest of his life?

“Put it another way: how psychologically twisted is McCain? And what actually happened to him in his POW camp that twisted him? Was it abuse, as he claims, or was it the fact that he collaborated and has to cover up? Covering-up can take a lot of energy. The truth is lurking there in his subconscious, waiting to explode. ”

“McCain had a unique POW experience. Initially, he was taken to the infamous Hanoi Hilton prison camp, where he was interrogated. By McCain’s own account, after three or four days he cracked. He promised his Vietnamese captors, “I’ll give you military information if you will take me to the hospital …

“His Vietnamese captors soon realized their POW, John Sidney McCain III, came from a well-bred line in the American military elite. . .The Vietnamese realized, this poor stooge has propaganda value. The admiral’s boy was used to special treatment, and his captors knew that. They were working him.”

“. . .two weeks into his stay at the Vietnamese hospital, the Hanoi press began quoting him. It was not ‘name rank and serial number, or kill me’. as specified by the military code of conduct. McCain divulged specific military information: he gave the name of the aircraft carrier on which he was based, the number of U.S. pilots that had been lost, the number of aircraft in his flight formation, as well as information about the location of rescue ships.”

“…McCain was held for five and half years. The first two weeks’ behavior might have been pragmatism, but McCain soon became North Vietnam’s go-to collaborator…..McCain cooperated with the North Vietnamese for a period of three years. His situation isn’t as innocuous as that of the French barber who cuts the hair of the German occupier. McCain was repaying his captors for their kindness and mercy.

“This is the lesson of McCain’s experience as a POW: a true politician, a hollow man, his only allegiance is to power. The Vietnamese, like McCain’s campaign contributors today, protected and promoted him, and, in return, he danced to their tune. . .”

McCain proposes League of Democracies to bypass U.N.
Mark Memmott and Jill Lawrence / USA Today April 29, 2008

Sen. John McCain says that if he’s elected president, he wants to create a worldwide “League of Democracies” to “revive democratic solidarity” and bypass gridlock at the United Nations.
“The new League of Democracies would form the core of an international order of peace based on freedom. It could act where the U.N. fails to act,” such as in Darfur, McCain says in advance excerpts of a speech he’s making Tuesday to the Hoover Institution.
According to the excerpts, provided by his campaign, McCain envisions the new organization taking on AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and “the crisis in our environment.” He says it could also put pressure on tyrants in Burma or Zimbabwe “with or without Moscow’s and Beijing’s approval.”
Sounds like Russia and China might not be invited to join. Asked about that, McCain spokesman Danny Diaz declined to elaborate.
McCain says he would call a summit of world democracies in his first year to explore the practical steps needed to realize his vision.
Update at 8:30 a.m. ET, May 1: There’s an Associated Press story on McCain’s proposal here.

Hillary Clinton Threatens To ‘Obliterate’ Iran If Israel Attacked

WASHINGTON, April 22 (AFP) Apr 22, 2008

Democratic presidential hopeful Hillary Clinton threatened to “obliterate” Iran if it launches a nuclear attack on Israel, in an interview broadcast Tuesday.

“I want the Iranians to know that if I’m the president, we will attack Iran,” Clinton told ABC News, asked what she would do as president were Iran to launch a nuclear attack on Israel.

“In the next 10 years, during which they might foolishly consider launching an attack on Israel, we would be able to totally obliterate them.”

The tough talk came just prior to Tuesday’s Pennsylvania primary, a key milestone in the marathon Democratic nominations race pitting Clinton against her rival Senator Barack Obama.

Clinton must win the Pennsylvania primary, but she needs to do more than simply scrape past Obama to rescue her trailing White House bid, pundits say.

Obama’s camp Monday accused Clinton of trying to scare voters, as she rocked their White House race with a dark campaign ad featuring images of Al-Qaeda mastermind Osama bin Laden.

The ad uses pictures of Pearl Harbor, bin Laden and the devastating 2005 hurricane that swamped New Orleans, mirroring the “3:00 am phone call” spot credited with helping Clinton to win in Texas and Ohio last month.

“You need to be ready for anything — especially now, with two wars, oil prices skyrocketing and an economy in crisis,” the male narrator intones. “Who do you think has what it takes?”

Both Democrats have vowed to defend Israel against any Iranian attack, but they differ on how to engage the Islamic republic over its nuclear ambitions.

Both call for diplomacy, but Obama has gone further, renewing a promise of “direct talks” at a leaders’ level with Tehran and others the United States regards as foes, at a candidate debate here last week.

Iran should be presented with “carrots and sticks,” the Illinois senator said, while stressing “they should also know that I will take no options off the table when it comes to preventing them from using nuclear weapons or obtaining nuclear weapons.”

At the debate, he said: “An (Iranian) attack on Israel is an attack on our strongest ally in the region, one whose security we consider paramount.”

“That would be an act of aggression that I would consider unacceptable, and the United States would take appropriate action.”

Three States Conduct Martial Law Sweeps
Steve Watson

Federal law enforcement agencies co-opted sheriffs offices as well state and local police forces in three states last weekend for a vast round up operation that one sheriff’s deputy has described as “martial law training”.

Law-enforcement agencies in Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas took part in what was described by local media as “an anti-crime and anti-terrorism initiative” involving officers from more than 50 federal, state and local agencies.

Given the military style name “Operation Sudden Impact“, the initiative saw officers from six counties rounding up fugitives, conducting traffic checkpoints, climbing on boats on the Mississippi River and doing other “crime-abatement” programs all under the label of “anti-terrorism”.

WREG Memphis news channel 3 reported that the Sheriff’s Department arrested 332 people, 142 of whom were fugitives, or “terrorists” as they now seem to be known.

Hundreds of dollars were seized and drugs recovered, and 1,292 traffic violations were handed out to speeding terrorists and illegally parked terrorists.

Click here to watch a WREG Memphis news report

The authorities even raided businesses and store owners, confiscating computers and paperwork in an effort to “track down possible terrorists before something big happens”.

The Sheriff’s Department is determining if and when they plan another round-up.

The operation, which involved police, deputies, the FBI, drug agents, gang units and even the coast guard, is just one example of how law enforcement at the state and local levels is being co-opted and centralized by the Department of Homeland Security via massive federal grants.

It also highlights how the distinction between crime and terrorism is becoming irrelevant.

An Infowars reader called in to the Alex Jones show yesterday to alert us to the story and explain that he had gleaned the information from a his friend, a sheriff’s deputy in Memphis, who had described the operation as “training for martial law in America”.

Forget innocent until proven guilty, you are now a terrorist suspect until you are told otherwise.

It is now the norm to consider everybody equally likely to be guilty of something than innocent. This is proactive policing, not preventative or reactive policing, and is widely indicative of a society that is NOT free.

This form of proactive policing is a phenomena indicative of a once free state rapidly declining into a authoritarian police state.

If there was a real terror threat in these states, it would surely make sense to for law enforcement agencies to target known trouble areas, and follow up on already existing leads. Instead we are seeing local police and the coast guard being recruited to randomly target anyone in any area as possible terrorists.

Surely if there was a real terror threat, this activity would harm the effort to combat it.

Of course, such activity is clearly not related to a real and tangible terror threat, it is related to the ongoing effort to vastly increase the size and scope of the federal government and increase the power it has over American citizens.

The information and intelligence from the operation will be collated and routed through federally funded state-run fusion centers, which are working in conjunction with the military arm of the DHS, NORTHCOM.

Such information will soon include the DNA and other biometric information from every person arrested, which DHS head Michael Chertoff has declared is no longer your personal information.

We recently reported on the fact that after 9/11 the Justice Department advised the Bush administration that it was able to effectively suspend the Fourth Amendment where domestic counter terrorism operations are concerned.

In light of this, and given that the government has begun to class any crime as terrorism and set local and state police to work on “anti-terror” operations, it is clear that the protections provided by the Bill of Rights and the Constitution are under direct threat.

We have seen how new provisions will effectively nullify the U.S. constitution, and a recent spate of executive orders, in particular PDD 51, outline preparations for the implementation of open martial law in the event of a declared national emergency.

Centralized and federally coordinated law enforcement programs complement nationwide FEMA programs to train Pastors and other religious representatives to become secret police enforcers who teach their congregations to “obey the government” in preparation for the implementation of martial law, property and firearm seizures, mass vaccination programs and forced relocation. The effects of this particular program have already been witnessed.

New FEMA Drill To Start May 2008


Upcoming Exercises

National Level Exercise 2-08 (NLE 2-08).

The Department of Homeland Security’s National Exercise Program (NEP), the nation’s overarching homeland security exercise program, will conduct a combined exercise in May 2008 that will test hurricane preparedness planning, assess federal interagency Continuity of Operations (COOP) procedures, exercise a response to terrorist attacks in Washington State and test Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA). These linked exercises are referred to as National Level Exercise 2-08 (NLE 2-08).

The exercise takes place May 1-8 with a wide range of participants from federal and state departments and agencies.

NLE 2-08 will consolidate into a single exercise the following:

  • Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) National Continuity Programs’ (NCP) Eagle Horizon 2008;
  • U.S. Northern Command’s (USNORTHCOM) Ardent Sentry 08 exercise;
  • FEMA’s Disaster Operation’s Hurricane Preparedness Exercise (HPE);
  • The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program and Army Service Response Force tests for emergency plans, procedures, skills and equipment in response to an accidental chemical agent release.

The overall exercise scenario unfolds as a Category 4 hurricane threatens the National Capitol Region (NCR) while events in the Pacific Northwest include terrorist attacks involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in the state of Washington and an accidental release of a chemical agent at chemical stockpile facility in Umatilla, Oregon. The scenario culminates with the hurricane’s imminent landfall combined with a credible terror threat to the NCR which causes the federal government to invoke continuity plans and capabilities.

Planning for NLE 2-08 began in late spring 2007 and is designed to achieve the following objectives:

  • Exercise and evaluate federal government continuity capabilities and management of emergencies from dispersed locations.
  • Exercise our response to terrorist WMDs threat and attack capabilities with integration of Defense Support of Civil Authorities; and
  • Exercise hurricane preparedness and response capabilities.

For more information on NLE 2-08 please contact FEMA Office of Public Affairs at 202-646-4600 or USNORTHCOM Public Affairs at 719-554-6889.

New York City Cops Acquitted After Shooting an Unarmed Man

Source: The New York Times

CantonTruth Comments in blue

In the early morning hours of Nov. 25, 2006, Sean Bell, a 23-year-old New York City man due to be married later that day, walked out of a Queens strip club, climbed into a gray Nissan Altima with two friends who had been celebrating with him – and died in a hail of 50 bullets fired by a group of five police officers.

The shooting shocked the city and brought back memories of the deaths in other high-profile police shootings – in particular, the death of Amadou Diallo, an African peddler killed after police fired 41 shots at him in 1999. Both men were black and both were unarmed, although in both cases the officers appeared to have believed the suspect had a gun.

Believing that someone has a gun does not justify murdering them. If it does then any police officer that pulls you over has the right to open fire on you if he only BELIEVES that you may have a gun.

While the death of Mr. Bell did not prompt the same levels of rage and protest as the Diallo case, it prompted unsettling questions about the changes in police procedures adopted in recent years, and about whether black men remained unfairly singled out for aggressive police action.
On March 16, 2007, a Queens grand jury voted to indict three detectives in the case, charging the two who had fired the bulk of the shots,Detective Michael Oliver and Detective Gescard F. Isnora, with first-degree and second-degree manslaughter, and the third, Detective Marc Cooper, with reckless endangerment.

The three pleaded not guilty, and in the days before the trial began on Feb. 25, 2008, defense lawyers made clear that they were going to concentrate on potential justification for the first two shots fired by Detectives Oliver and Isnora. In particular, they were expected to focus on evidence that Mr. Bell was intoxicated and on a statement by one of Mr. Bell’s companion that there had been talk outside the nightclub that someone had a gun. The officers have said they followed Mr. Bell and his companions in the belief that they were going to retrieve a gun following a dispute outside the club.
During the trial, defense lawyers pointed to forensic evidence that suggested that the firing only began after Mr. Bell rammed his car into an unmarked police van. They also accused Mr. Bell’s companions of lying on the witness stand.

Even if the firing didn’t start until after Mr. Bell rammed his car into an unmarked police van the question still remains of why were there 50 shots fired. All three men were unarmed and were no threat to the police officers. True the were intoxicated but this does not give the police the right to open fire at you let alone to fire 50 times.

On April 25, 2008, Justice Arthur J. Cooperman, who heard the case alone after the detectives waived their right to a jury, acquitted all three men of all the charges against them. — April 25, 2008

It can also be said that the detectives waived their right to a jury so that no human side could be brought into the court room. If there is no jury to try to convince that you acted appropriately then you only have to convince one man. Sean Bell was murdered by the New York City Police Department and his killers have just been acquitted.

Elaborate Hoax Or Government Cover Up? UFO Sighting In Skies Over Phoenix, Arizona On April 21, 2008

Wednesday April 23, 2008
Associated Press

PHOENIX — Red colored lights that formed a square and then a triangle were seen floating over north Phoenix late Monday, a sight reminiscent of an unexplained 1997 sighting that has become part of the area’s lore.

There was no immediate word where they came from.

The Air Force said the lights weren’t from any of their flight operations and officials at Deer Valley airport and Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport could not explain it.

The lights were visible for about 13 minutes around 8 p.m. Monday.

A Luke Air Force Base official said the base wasn’t flying any aircraft in the sky Monday night and that the lights are not part of any Air Force activities.

KSAZ-TV, a local Fox affiliate in Phoenix, reported that officials from Phoenix Deer Valley Airport saw the lights approximately 4 miles south of the airport and that the lights were rising as they watched.

Airport officials said the lights were not from any aircraft at that airport.

Ian Gregor, a spokesman for the Federal Aviation Administration, said that air traffic controllers at Sky Harbor also witnessed the lights, but do not know the cause.

On March 13, 1997, thousands of residents reported seeing a mile-wide, v-shaped formation of lights over the Phoenix area. In that case, the lights appeared about 7:30 p.m. and lasted until 10:30 p.m.

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